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P1NDARUS.

lessen, in his admirable essay, " De Ratione Poe-tica Carminum Pindaricorum, &c." prefixed to his edition of Pindar, an essay which deserves, and will well repay the attentive perusal of the student. The metres of Pindar are too extensive and difficult a subject to admit of explanation in the present work. No two odes possess the same metrical structure. The Doric rhythm chiefly pre­vails, but he also makes frequent use of the Aeolian and Lydian as well.

The Editio Piinceps of Pindar was printed at the Aldine press at Venice in 1513, 8vo., without the Scholia, but the same volume contained likewise the poems of Callimachus, Dionysius, and Lyco-phron. The second edition was published at Rome byZacharias Calliergi, with the Scholia, in 1515, 4to. These two editions, which were taken from different families of manuscripts, are still of con­siderable value for the formation of the text. The other editions of Pindar published in the course of the sixteenth century were little more than reprints of the two above-named, and therefore require no further notice here. The first edition, containing a new recension of the text, with explanatory notes, a Latin version, &c. was that published by Erasmus Schmidius, Vitembergae, 1616, 4to. Next ap­peared the edition of Joannes Benedictus, Salnuirii, 1620, 4to., and then the one published at Oxford, 1697, fol. From this time Pindar appears to have been little studied, till Heyne published his cele­brated edition of the poet at Gottingen in 1773, 4to. A second and much improved edition was published at Gottingen in 1798—1799, 3 vols. 8vo., containing a valuable treatise on the metres of Pindar by Godofred Hermann. Heyne's third edition was published after his death by G. H. Schafer, Leipzig, 1817, 3 vols. 8vo. But the best edition of Pindar is that by A. Bb'ckh, Leipzig, 1811—1821, 2 vols. 4to., which contains a most valuable commentary and dissertations, and is in­dispensable to the student who wishes to obtain a thorough insight into the musical system of the Greeks, and the artistic construction of their lyric poetry. The commentary on the Nemean and Isthmian odes in this edition was written by Dissen. Dissen also published in the Bibliotheca Graeca a smaller edition of the poet, Gotha, 1830, 2 vols. 8vo., taken from the text of Bockh, with a most valuable explanatory commentary. This edi­tion is the most useful to the student from its size, though it does not supersede that of Bockh. A second edition of Dissen's is now in course of pub­lication under the care of Schneidewin : the first volume has already appeared, Gotha, 1843. There is also a valuable edition of Pindar by Fr. Thiersch, Leipzig, 1820, 2 vols. 8vo., with a German translation, and an important introduction. The text of the poet is given with great accuracy by Th. Bergk in his Poetae Lyrici Graeci9 Leipzig, 1843. The translations of Pindar into English are not numerous. The most recent is by the Rev. H. F. Gary, London, 1833, which is superior to the older translations by West and Moore.

(The histories of Greek literature by Miiller, Bernhardy, Bode, and Ulrici ; J. G, Schneider, Versuch uber Pindar^s Leben und ScJiriften, Stras-burg, 1774, 8vo ; Mommsen, Pindaros. Zur Ges-chichte des Dichiers^c.^ Kiel, 1845,8vo ; Schneide-win's Life of Pindar^ prefixed to the second edition of Dissen's Pindar.)

PINDARUS, the freedman of C. Cassius Lon-

PIPA.

ginus, put an end to his master's life at the request of the latter after the loss of the battle of Philippi. (Dion Cass. xlvii. 46 ; Appian, B. C. iv. 113 ; Plut. Ant. 22, Brut. 43 ; Val. Max. vi. 8. § 4.)

PINNA, CAECI'LIUS, one of the Roman commanders in the Social or Marsic war, is said to have defeated the Marsi in several battles, in conjunction with L. Murena (Liv. Epit. 76). As this Caeciiius Pinna is not mentioned else­where, it is conjectured that we ought to read Caeciiius Pius, since we know that Caeciiius Metellus Pius played a distinguished part in this war.

PINNES, PINNEUS, or PINEUS, was the son of Agron, king of Illyria, by his first wife, Triteuta. At the death of Agron (b. c. 231), Pinnes, who was then a child, was left in the guardianship of his step-mother Teuta, whom Agron had married after divorcing Triteuta. When Teuta was defeated by the Romans, the care of Pinnes devolved upon Demetrius of Pharos, who had received from the Romans a great part of the dominions of Teuta, and had likewise married Triteuta, the mother of Pinnes. Demetrius was in his turn tempted to try his fortune against Rome, but was quickly crushed by the consul, L. Aemilius Paulus, b. c. 219, and was obliged to fly for refuge to Philip, king of Macedonia. The Romans placed Pinnes upon the throne, but im­posed a tribute, which we read of their sending for in b. c. 216. (Dion Cass. xxxiv. 46, 151 ; Appian, Illyr. 7, 8 ; Flor. ii. 5 ; Liv. xxii. 33.) [agron ; demetrius of pharos ; teuta.]

PINNES or PINNETES, one of the principal Pannonian chiefs in the reign of Augustus, was betrayed to the Romans by the Breucian Bato. (Dion Cass. Iv. 34 ; Veil. Pat. ii. 114.)

PFNNIUS, the name of two unimportant persons, Q. Pinnius, a friend of Varro (R.R. iii. 1), and T. Pinnius, a friend of Cicero (ad Fam. xiii. 61).

PINTHIA, M. LUTA'TIUS, a Roman eques, lived about a century before the downfal of the republic. (Cic. de Off. iii. 19).

PINUS, CORNELIUS, a Roman painter, who, with Attius Priscus, decorated with paint­ ings the walls of the temple of Honos and Virtus, when it was restored by Vespasian. He therefore lived about A. d. 70. (Plin. H. N. xxxv. 10. s. 37.) [P. S.]

PINYTUS (ilj/uto's), an epigrammatic poet, the author of an epitaph on Sappho, consisting of a single distich, in the Greek Anthology. (Brunck, Anal. vol. ii. p. 288 ; Jacobs, Anth. Graec. vol. ii. p. 264.) Nothing more is known of him, unless he be the grammarian of Bithynium in Bithynia, who was the freedman of Nero's favourite, Epaphrodi- tus, and who taught grammar at Rome. (Steph. Byz. s. v. Bidvviov ; Reimar. ad Dion. Cass. Ixvii. 14, p. 1113.) [P.S.]

PFONIS (Ilioj/ts), a descendant of Heracles, from whom the town of Pionia in Mysia was be­ lieved to have derived its name. (Strab. xiii. p. 610; Paus. ix. 18. §3.) [L. S.]

PIPA, the wife of Aeschrion of Syracuse, was the mistress of Verres in Sicily (Cic. Verr. iii. 33, v. 31).

PIPA, or PIPARA, daughter of Attains, king of the Marcomanni, was passionately beloved by Gallienus. Trebellius Pollio confounds her with Salonina, the lawful wife of that prince, and Gib-

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