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On this page: Phoxidas – Phraataces – Phraates – Phradmon – Phranza



to the chronology of these meetings, which is dis­cussed by Tillemont in two of his careful notes. (Mem. vol. xv. p. 897, &c.) Photius was present at the Council of Ephesus, known as the " Concilium latrocinale," where he joined in acquitting the archimandrite Eutyches, and restoring him to his ecclesiastical rank from which he had been de­posed. (Concil. vol. iv. col. 260, ed. Labbe, vol. ii. col. 220, ed. Hardouin.) About the same time Pho­tius had a contest with Enstathius, bishop of Be-rytus, who had obtained an edict of the emperor Theodosius IL, erecting Berytus into a metropolitan see, as to the extent of their respective jurisdic­tions. Tillemont judges that the dignity accorded to the see of Berytus, was designed to be merely titular, and that the struggle was occasioned by the attempt of Eustathius to assume metropolitan ju­risdiction over some bishoprics previously under the jurisdiction of Tyre. In this attempt, being supported by the patriarchs, Anatolius of Constan­tinople, and Maximus of Antioch, he effected his purpose : and Photius, after a struggle, was con­strained, not so much by an excommunication which was speedily recalled, as by a threat of de­position, to submit. The jurisdiction of the dioceses abstracted was, however, restored to Photius by the Council of Chalcedon, A. d. 451. (Concil. vol. iv. col. 539, ed. Labbe, vol. ii. col. 435, &c., ed. Har­douin.) Photius was among those who at the same council voted that Theodoret was orthodox, and should be restored to his see. (Concil. col. 619, ed. Labbe, col. 495, ed. Hardouin.) He also took part in some of the other transactions of the as­sembly. Nothing further is known of him. There is extant one piece of Photius, entitled Ae^crcfs, Preces s. Supples/ Libettus, addressed to the em­perors Valentinian III. and Marcian, respecting the dispute with Eustathius of Berytus. It is given in the Actio Quarta of the Council of Chal­cedon. (Concilia, vol. iv. col. 542, &c., ed. Labbe, vol. ii. col. 436, &c. ed. Hardouin.)

A Synopsis de Conciliis, extant in MS., is ascribed to Photius of Tyre: this cannot be, as some have supposed, the same work as the Epitome Actorum Concilioruni, also extant in MS., and as­ cribed to the more celebrated Photius, patriarch of Constantinople. (Tillemont, Mem. II. cc. ; Cave, Hist. Litt. ad ann. 451, vol. i. p. 443 ; Fabric. Biblioth. Graec. vol. x. p. 678, vol. xii. p. 358.) [J.C.M.]

PHOXIDAS (*o£ffios), a leader of Greek mer­ cenaries in the service of Ptolemy Philopator. He is called by Polybius, in one passage, an Achaean, in another a Melitaean, by which is probably meant a native of Melitaea, in Phthiotis (Schweigh. ad Polyb, v. 63). Having had much experience in war under Demetrius II., and Antigonus Doson, he was one of the officers selected by Agathocles and Sosibius, the ministers of the Egyptian king, to levy and discipline an army with which to oppose the progress of Antiochus III. He appears to have ably discharged the duties entrusted to him, and when the army was at length able to take the field, held the command of a body of 8000 Greek mercenaries, with which he rendered important services at the great battle of Raphia (b.c. 217), and contributed essentially to the victory of the Egyptian monarch on that occasion. (Polyb. v. 6-3 65, 85). [E. H. B.]

PHRAATACES, king of Partliia. [arsacbs XVI,]


PHRAATES, the name of four kings of Parthia, [arsaces, V. VII. XII. XV.]

PHRAATES. ]. A son of Phraates IV., was made king of Parthia by Tiberius, in opposition to Artabanus III. (Arsaces XIX.), but was carried off by a disease soon after his arrival in Syria, in consequence of his discontinuing the Roman habit of living, to which he had been accustomed for so many years, and adopting that of the Parthians. (Tac. Ann. vi. 31, 32 ; Dion Cass. Iviii. 26.) [arsaces XIX.]

2. A noble Parthian in the reign of Artabanus III. (Arsaces XIX.) (Tac. Ann. vi. 42, 43.)

PHRADMON (^pcfttyuw), of Argos, a statuary, whom Pliny places, as the contemporary of Poly-cleitns, Myron, Pythagoras, Scopas, and Perelius, at 01 90, b.c. 420 (H. N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19, accord­ing to the reading of the Bamberg MS. ; the com­mon text places all these artists at 01. 87). Ho was one of those distinguished artists who entered into the celebrated competition mentioned by Pliny (/. c.), each making an Amazon for the temple of Artemis at Ephesus : the fifth place was assigned to the work of Phradmon, who seems to have been younger than either of the four who were preferred to him. Pausanias mentions his statue of the Olympic victor Amertas (vi. 8. § 1); and there is an epigram by Theodoridas, in the Greek Anthology, on a group of twelve bronze cows, made by Phradmon, and dedicated to Athena Itonia, that is, Athena, as worshipped at Iton in Thessaly (Anth. Pal. ix. 743 ; comp. Steph. Byz. s. v. itcoz/). Phradmon is also mentioned by Colu-mella (7?. R. x. 30). Respecting the true form of the name, which is sometimes corrupted into Phray-mon and Phradmon, and also respecting the read­ing of the passage in Pliny, see Sillig. (Cat. Art. s. ?>.. and Var. Led. ad Plin. vol. v. p. 75.) [P. S.]

PHRANZA or PHRANZES (Spwrtf or •Ppaz/T^rjs), the last and one of the most important Byzantine historians, was born in a. d. 1401, and was appointed chamberlain to the emperor Manuel II. Palaeologus in 1418, at the youthful age of sixteen years and six months, according to his own statement (i. 36). From this circum­stance, from his subsequently rapid promotion, and from the superior skill he evinced in his public life, we may conclude both that he was of high birth, and must be possessed of eminent talents. In 1423 he accompanied Lucas Notaras and Melanchrenos Manuel on an embassy, from the dowager empress Eudoxia to the Sultanin, wife of Miirad II. Manuel recommended him, when dying, to his sou John VII. ; but Phranza attached himself espe­cially to the new emperor's brother Constantine, afterwards the last emperor of Constantinople, and then prince of the Morea. In his service Phranza distinguished himself as a diplomatist, a warrior, and a loyal subject. At the siege of Patras he saved his master from imminent death or captivity, and not being able to effect his purpose without sacrificing his own person, he nobly preferred the latter, and thus fell into the hands of the enemy. During forty days he suffered most cruel privations in a deep dungeon, and when he was at last ran­somed, he was so emaciated that Constantine shed tears at his sight (1429). Some time afterwards he was sent, together with Marcus Palaeologus, as ambassador to Sultan Miirad II. ; and it is a charac­teristic feature of the time, that at a banquet given by him and his colleague to some Turkish minis-

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