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On this page: Phoebadius – Phoebe – Phoebidas – Phoebus – Phoenicides


contained some of the same old verses, the true authorship of which was unknown. (Fabric. Bibl. Grace, vol. ii. p. 720, &c. ; Ulrici, Gesch. d. Hellen. Dichtk. vol. ii. pp. 452—454 ; Bode, Gesch. d. Lyr. Dickt. vol. i. pp. 243, &c.; Bern hardy, Gesch. d. Griech. Lit. vol. ii. pp. 358—361.) [P. S.]

PHOEBADIUS, bishop of Agen, in South­western Gaul, about the middle of the fourth cen­tury, was an eager champion of orthodoxy, but at the council of Ariminum, in a. d. 359, was en­trapped, along with Servatio, a Belgian bishop, by the artifices of the prefect Taurus, into signing an Arian confession of faith, which, upon discovering the fraud, he openly and indignantly abjured. He subsequently took an active part in the council of Valence, held in a. d. 374, and, as we learn from Jerome, lived to a great age.

One work unquestionably composed by Phoeba-dius has descended to us, entitled Contra Arianos Liber, a trac't written about A. d. 358, in a clear, animated, and impressive style for the purpose of ex­posing the errors contained in a document well known in ecclesiastical history as iheSecond Sirmian Creed, that is, the Arian Confession of Faith, drawn up by Potamius and Hosius, and adopted by the third council of Sirmium, in 357, in which the word Consubstantial is altogether rejected, and it is maintained that the Father is greater than the Son, and that the Son had a beginning. This essay was discovered by Peter Pithou, and first published at Geneva in 1570, by Beza, in an octavo volume, containing also some pieces by Athanasius, Basil, and Cyril ; it was subsequently printed by Pithou himself, in his Veterum aliquot Galliae Theologorum Scripta, 4to. 1586, and is contained in almost all the large collections of Fathers. It was edited in a separate form by Barth, 8vo. Francf. 1623, and appears under its best form in the Biblio-theca Pat-ruin of Galland, vol. v. p. 250, fol. Venet. 1763.

In addition to the above, a Liber de Fide Ortho-doxa and a Libellus Fidei, both found among the works of Gregory of Nazianzus (Oral. xlix. 4), the former among the works of Ambrose also (Append, vol. ii. p. 345, ed. Bened.) have, with considerable probability, been ascribed to Phoebadius. These, as well as the Liber contra Arianos, are included in the volume of Galland referred to above. See also his Prolegomena, cap. xv. p. xxiv. (Hieron. de Viris III. 108 ; Schb'nemann, Bibl. Patrum Lat. vol. i. cap. iii. §11; Bahr, Geschicht. der Rom. Litterat. suppl Band. 2te Abtheil. § 63.) [W. R.]

PHOEBE («i>oi§T)). 1. A daughter of Uranus and Ge, became by Coeus the mother of Asteria and Leto. (Hes. Tkeog. 136, 404, &c.; Apollod. i. 1. § 3, 2, § 2.) According to Aeschylus (Eum. 6) she was in possession of the Delphic oracle after Themis, and prior to Apollo.

2. A daughter of Tyndareos and Leda, and a sister of Clytaemnestra. (Eurip. Iph. Aul. 50 ; Ov. Heroid. viii. 77.)

3. A nymph married to Danaus. (Apollod. ii. 1. §5.)

4. A daughter of Leucippus, and sister of Hi-laeira, a priestess of Athena, was carried off with her sister by the Dioscuri, and became by Poly-deuces the mother of Mnesileos. (Apollod. iii. 10. § 3 ; Paus. ii. 22. § 6 ; comp. dioscuri.)

5. An Amazon who was slain by Heracles. (Diod. iv. 16.)

6. A surname of Artemis in her capacity as the



goddess of the moon (Luna), the moon being re­ garded as the female Phoebus or sun. (Virg. Georg. i. 431, Aen. x. 215 ; Ov. fferoid. xx. 229.) [L. S.]

PHOEBE, a freedwoman of Julia, the daughter of Augustus, having been privy to the adulteries of her mistress, hung herself when the crimes of the latter were detected ; whereupon Augustus de­clared that he would rather have been the father of Phoebe than of his own daughter. (Suet. Aug. 65 ; Dion Cass. Iv. 10.)

PHOEBIDAS («i>oi§i5as), a Lacedaemonian, who, in B. c. 382, at the breaking out of the Olyn- thian war, was appointed to the command of the troops destined to reinforce his brother Eudamidas, who had been sent against Olynthus. On his way Phoebidas halted at Thebes, and, with the aid of Leontiades and his party, treacherously made him­ self master of the Cadmeia. According to Diodorus he had received secret orders from the Spartan go­ vernment to do so, if occasion should offer ; while Xenophon merely tells us that, being a man of more gallantry than prudence, and loving a dashing action better than his life, he listened readily to the persuasions of Leontiades. Be that as it may, Agesilaus vindicated his proceedings, on the sole ground that they were expedient for the state, and the Spartans resolved to keep the advantage they had gained ; but, as if they could thereby save their credit in Greece, they fined Phoebidas 100,000 drachmas, and sent Lysanoridas to supersede him in the command. When Agesilaus retired from Boeotia after his campaign there in b. c. 378, Phoebidas was left behind by him as harmost, at Thespiae, and annoyed the Tliebans greatly by his continued invasions of their territory. To make reprisals, therefore, they marched with their whole army into the Thespian country, where, however, Phoebidas effectually checked their ravages with his light-armed troops, and at length forced them to a retreat, during which he pressed on their rear with good hopes of utterly routing them. But finding their progress stopped by a thick wood, they took heart of necessity and wheeled round on their pursuers, charging them with their cavalry, and putting them to flight. Phoebidas himself, with two or three others, kept his post, and was slain, fighting bravely. This is the account of Xenophon. Diodorus, on the other hand, tells us that he fell in a sally from Thespiae, which the Thebans had attacked. (Xen. Hell. v. 2. §§ 24, &c. 4. §§ 41—46 ; Diod. xv. 20, 33; Plut. Ages. 23, 24, Pelop. 5, 6, de Gen. Soc. 1; Polyb. iv. 27; Polyaen. ii. 5.) [E. E.]

PHOEBUS («J>oi£os), i.e. the shining, pure or bright, occurs both as an epithet and a name of Apollo, in his capacity of god of the sun. (Horn. //. i. 43, 443 ; Virg. Aen. iii. 251 ; Horat. Carm. iii. 21, 24 ; Macrob. Sat. i. 17 ; comp. apollo, helios.) Some ancients derived the name from Apollo's grandmother Phoebe. (Aeschyl. Eum. 8.) [L. S.]

PHOEBUS, a freedman of the emperor Nero, treated Vespasian during the reign of the latter with marked insult, but received no further punish­ment than the same treatment on the accession of Vespasian to the throne. (Tac. Ann. xvi. 6 ; Dion Cass. Ixvi. 11 ; Suet. Vesp. 14.)

PHOENICIDES (QoiviKidris), of Megara, a comic poet of the New Comedy, who must have flourished between 01. 125 and 130, b. c. 280 and

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