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On this page: Phiteus – Phlegethon – Phlegon – Phlegyas – Phleon


have been published with the head of Phintias himself are probably spurious. (See Eckhel, vol. i. p. 266.) [E. H. B.]


PHITEUS, architect. [phileus.]

PHLEGETHON (fcAe-ycflwv), i. e. the flaming, a river in the lower world, is described as a son of Cocytus; but he is more commonly called Pyriphlege- thon. (Virg. Aen. vi. 265, 550 ; Stat. Tlieb. iv. 522,) [L. S.]

PHLEGON (*A£y«v), one of the horses of Sol. (Ov. Met. ii. 154 ; Hygin. Fab. 183.) [L. S.J

PHLEGON («S»Ae'7a>j>), a native of Tralles in Lydia, was a freedman of the emperor Hadrian, and not of Augustus, as has been erroneously as­serted by some writers, on the authority of Suidas (comp. Phot. Cod. 97 ; Spartian. fladr. 16, Sever. 20 ; Vopisc. Saturn. 7). Phlegon probably survived Hadrian, since his work on the Olympiads came down to 01. 229, that is, a. d. 137, which was the year before the death of this emperor. The fol­lowing is a list of the writings of Phlegon.

1. Ilepi &av/naoriwv, a small treatise on wonderful events, which has come down to us, but the begin­ning of which is wanting. It is a poor perform­ance, full of the most ridiculous tales, and with the exception of the work of Psellus, the worst of the Greek treatises on this subject.

2. ITept jUctK-pogiw;/, which is likewise extant, consists of only a few pages, and gives a list of persons in Italy who had attained the age of a hundred years and upwards. It was copied from the registers of the censors (e| avrwv t&v d-norifj^-o-eooj/), is a bare enumeration of names, and is not worthy to be compared with the work on the same subject ascribed to Lucian. At the end there is an extract from the Sibylline oracles of some sixty or seventy lines. These are the only works of Phlegon which have come down to us.

3. 'OKviAirioviKtov Kal xpoviKtoV ffvvayuyri, which is sometimes quoted under the title of xpoj/o7pa<pi'c« or 'OAuyUTTtaSes, was in seventeen books, and gave an account of the Olympiads from 01.1 (b.c. 776) to 01. 229 (a. d. 137). It was dedicated to Alcibiades, who was one of the body-guards of Hadrian. This was by far the most important of the works of Phlegon. The commencement of the book is preserved in the manuscripts of the other works of Phlegon, and an extract from it re­lating to the 177th Olympiad is given by Photius (Cod. 97) ; but with these exceptions, and a few references to it in Stephanus Byzantinus, Eusebius, Origen, and others, the work is entirely lost. The style of it is characterized by Photius as not very mean, but at the same time as not pure Attic ; and he blames likewise the excessive care and at­tention bestowed by the author upon oracles.

4. 'OAu/zTnaSes ev /3i€ \iois »?', was on the same subject as the preceding work, and must be re­garded as a sort of abridgement of it: Clinton has remarked, with justice, that Photius probably quoted from this shorter work in eight books, and not




from the larger work in sixteen. Photius tells us that the fifth book completed Olympiad 177 ; now we learn from other quarters that Phlegon in his 13th book described 01. 203 ; and it is therefore not likely that he employed 8 books (lib. 6—13) on 26 Olympiads, and 5 on 177. But if Photius quoted the epitome in eight books, the first five might contain 177 Olympiads, and the last three the remaining 52. Photius himself did not read further than 01. 177.

5. 'ETTtTOUT^ 'OAUjUTHOI/iKolz/ 6J/ J&gAlOiS /B'., is

expressly mentioned by Suidas as an epitome, and probably differed from the preceding abridgment in containing no historical information, but simply a list of the Olympic conquerors.

6. "EK(])pa.(ns SiKeAiay.

7. Hep* t&v Trapcl 'Pcauaiois eoprwv fit§A.ia y'.

8. ne,ol twv ev 'Pw/x?; r6iru>v Kal &v £TriK*K\'r}V-rai ovo^.d'nav. These works are mentioned only by Suidas.

9. A Life of Hadrian, was really written by the emperor himself, though published as the work of Phlegon. (Spartian. Hadr. 16.)

10. TwaiKes ez> tto\€/jliko'is ffvveral ko! aj'SpeTa/, a small treatise, first published by Heeren (in Bill, d. Alien. Literat. und Kunst, part vi. Gottingen, 1789), by whom it is ascribed to Phlegon ; but Westermann, who has also printed it, with the other works of Phlegon, thinks that it was not written by him.

The Editio Princeps of Phlegon was edited by Xylander, along with Antoninus Liberalis, Anti-gonus, and similar writers, Basel, 1568. The next edition was by Meursius, Lugd. Batav. 1620, which was reprinted by Gronovius, in his The­saurus of Greek Antiquities, vols. viii. and ix. The third edition was by Fr. Franz, 1775, of which a new edition appeared in 1822, Halle, with the notes of Bast. The most recent edition is by Westermann in his UapaSotoypdtyoi, Scriptores Rerum Mirabilium Graeci^ Brunsvig. 1839. The fragments on the Olympiads have also been pub­lished in the edition of Pindar published at Oxford in 1697, fol., and in Krause's Qlympia, Wien, 1838. (Fabric. Bibl. Grace, vol. v. p. 255 ; Voss. de Hist. Graec. p. 261, ed. Westermann ; Clinton, Fasti Romani^ vol. i. p. 127 ; Westermann, Prae-fatio ad UlapaSo^oypdtyovs, p. xxxvii. &c.)

PHLEGYAS (*A€7tJas), a king of the La-pithae, a son of Ares and Chryse, the daughter of Halmus, succeeded Eteocles, who died without issue, in the government of the district of Orchomenos, which he called after himself Phlegyantis. (Pans, ix. 36. § 1 ; Apollod. iii. 5. § 5.) By Chryse he became the father of Coronis, who became by Apollo the mother of Asclepius. Enraged at this, Phlegyas set fire to the temple of the God, who killed him with his arrows, and condemned him to severe punishment in the lower world. (Horn. Hymn. xv. 3 ; Pind. Pytli. iii. 14 ; Apollod. iii. 10. § 3, ii. 26. §4; Serv. ad Aen. vi. 618; Stat. Theb. i. 713.) According to another tradi­tion Phlegyas had no children, and was killed by Lycus and Nycteus. (Apollod. iii. 5. § 5.) Strabo (ix. p. 442) calls him a brother of Ixion. [L. S.]

PHLEON ($Aewv), i. e. the giver of plenty, is a surname of Dionysus, describing the god as pro­ moting the fertility of plants and trees. (Aelian, V. H. iii. 41.) A similar surname of the god is Phlyus (from tyXveiv • Schol. ad Apotton. Rhod. i. 115.) [L. S.]


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