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PHILOTHEUS (<t»iA(50eos), is "supposed to be the same person as Theophilus Protospatharius. [theophilus protosp.] There is extant under his name a commentary on the Aphorisms of Hip pocrates, which is in a great measure compiled from Galen's commentary on the same work, and is attributed to different persons in different MSS. It was first published in a Latin translation by Ludov. Coradus, Venet. 8vo. 1549, and again, Spirae, 8vo. 1581 : and it is in a great measure, if not entirely, the same work that has lately been published in Greek by F. R. Dietz in the second volume of his Scholia in Hippocratem et Galemun (Regim. Pruss. 8vo. 1834) under the name of Theopkilus. A short work relating to a MS. of Philotheus at Altdorf is mentioned by Choulant, with the title, J. Andr. Nagel, Proaramma sistens Memoriam Donationis Trewianae^ Altorf. 4to. 1788. (See Preface to vol. ii. of Dietz's Schol. in Hippocr. et Gal. ; Choulant, Handb. der Buclierknnde fur die Aeltere Medicin.) [W. A. G.]
PHILOTAor PHI'LOTIS («f»iAcoTa, $i\6ris)9 a woman of Epeirus, mother of charops the younger. She aided and seconded her son through out in his cruelty and extortion, having quite thrown off her woman's nature, as Polybius and Diodorus tell us. (Polyb. xxxii. 21 ; Diod. Exc. de Virt. et Vit. p. 587.) f E. K]
PHILOTTMUS, a freedman of Cicero, or rather of Terentia, is constantly mentioned in Cicero's correspondence. He had the chief management of Cicero's property. (Cic. ad Att. ii. 4, iv. 10, v. 3, et alibi.)
PHILOTFMUS ($iA<m,uos), an eminent Greek physician, a pupil of Praxagoras (Galen, De Aliment. Facult. i. 1*2, vol. vi. p. 509), and a fellow-pupil of Herophilus (id. De Metli, Med. i. 3, vol. x. p. 28). He was also a contemporary of Erasis-tratus (id. Comment, in Hippocr. " Aphor." vi. 1, vol. xviii. pt. i. p. 7), and is quoted by Heracleides of Tarentum (ap. Gal. Comment, in Hippocr. " De Artic." iv. 40, vol. xviii. pt. i. p. 736), and therefore must probabl}T have lived in the fourth and third centuries B. c. Celsus mentions him as one of the eminent physicians of antiquity (De Medic. viii. 20, p. 185) ; and he is quoted by several of the ancient medical writers, viz. by Caelius Aure-lianus (De Morb. Acut. ii. 16, De Morb. Chron. i. 4. pp.115, 323), Oribasius (Med. Coll. ii. 69, iv. 10, v. 32, pp. 236, 255, 279), and Aetius* (iii. 3, 12, p. 555), and very frequently by Galen. He belonged to the medical sect of the Dogmatici or Logici (Galen, De Ven. Sect. adv. Erasistr. cc. 5, 6, vol. xi. pp. 163, 169 ; Cra-mer's Anecd. Graeca Paris, vol. i. p. 395), and wrote several medical works, of which only a few fragments remain. Athenaeus quotes a work on Cookery, 'O^aprvriKos (vii. 81, p. 308), and another on Food, Tlepl Tpcxpijs, consisting of at least thirteen books (iii. 20, 24, pp. 81, 82): this latter work is several times quoted by Galen (De Aliment. Facult. i. 11, iii. 30, 31, vol. vi. pp. 507, 720, 726, et alibi.). Some modern critics suppose that he wrote a commentary on Hippocrates, Kar5 'IrjTpeibz/, De Officina Medici ; but this
* Aetius relates of Philotimus (ii. 2. 9, p. 250) the same anecdote that is told by Alexander Tral-lianus of Philodotus [philodotus], and indeed it is most probable that in this latter passage Philo-timus is the true reading.
is a mistake, as M. Littre observes (Oeuvres d"1 Hippocr. vol. i. pp. 82, 367), for Galen only says that he composed a work on the same subject, and with the same title. (Comment, in Hippocr. "De Offic. Med." i. praef., 5, vol. xviii. pt. ii. pp. 629, 666.) In an anatomical treatise which he wrote he pronounced the brain and heart to be useless organs (Galen, De Usu Part. viii. 3, vol. iii. p. 625), and the former to be merely an excessive development and offshoot (v-rrepavfy/Aa /cat /3Aa- o-TTjjua) of the spinal marrow. (Ibid. c. 12, p. 671.) Philotimus is quoted in various other parts of Galen's writings (see Fabr. Bibl. Gr. vol. iii. p. 583; ed. vet.), and Plutarch relates an anecdote of him. (De Recta Hat. Aud. c. 10 ; De Adulat. et Amico, c. 35.) He is also quoted by the Scholiast on Homer (A. 424). [W. A. G.]
PHILOXENUS (*iArf|6*/os), a Macedonian officer in the service of Alexander the Great, who was appointed by him after his return from Egypt (b. c. 331) to superintend the collection of the tribute in the provinces north of Mount Taurus (Arr. Anab. iii. 6. § 6). It would appear, how ever, that he did not immediately assume this command, as shortly afterwards we find him sent forward by Alexander from the field of Arbela to take possession of Susa and the treasures there deposited, which he effected without opposition (Id. iii. 16. § 9). After this he seems to have remained quietly in the discharge of his functions in Asia Minor (see Plut. Alex. 22 ; Pans. ii. 33. § 4), until the commencement of the year 323, when he conducted a reinforcement of troops from Caria to Babylon, where he arrived just before the last illness of Alexander (Id. vii. 23, 24). In the distribution of the provinces which followed the death of that monarch we find no mention of Philoxenus, but in b. c. 321 he was appointed by Perdiccas to succeed Philotas in the government of Cilicia. By what means he afterwards conciliated the favour of Antipater we know not, but in the partition at Triparadeisus after the fall of Perdiccas he was still allowed to retain his satrapy of Cilicia (Justin. xiii. 6 ; Arrian, ap. Phot. p. 71,b.; Diod. xviii. 39). From this time we hear no more of him. [E. H. B.]
poets of Greece. The accounts respecting him are, however, strangely confused, owing to the fact that there was another Philoxenus, a Leucadian, living at Athens about the same time or a little earlier: both these persons are ridiculed by the poets of the Old Comedy ; both seem to have spent a part of their lives in Sicily ; and it is evident that the grammarians were constantly confounding the one with the other. In order to exhibit the subject as clearly as possible, it is best to begin with the younger, but more important of these two persons, 1. Philoxenus, the son of Euletidas, was a native of Cythera, or, as others said, of Heracleia on the Pontus (Suid. s. v.) ; but the former account is no doubt the correct one. We learn from the Parian Marble (No. 70) that he died in 01. 100, b. c. 380, at the age of 55 ; he was, therefore, born