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xenus, but it would seem that this was only in order to employ him elsewhere, as we find him still closely attached to the party of Perdiccas, and after the death of the regent united with Alcetas, Attains, and their partizans, in the contest against Antigonus. He was taken prisoner, together with Attalus, Docimus, and Polemon, in b. c. 320, and shared with them their imprisonment, as well as the daring enterprise by which they for a time recovered their liberty [attalus, No. 2], He again fell into the power of Antigonus, in b. c. 316. (Diod. xviii. 45, xix. 16 ; Just. xiii. 6 ; Droysen, I.e. pp. 115, 268.)

6. A Macedonian officer in the service of An­tigonus, who was employed by him in b.c. 319, to endeavour by bribes and promises to corrupt the Argyraspids in the service of Eumenes, and especially their leaders Antigenes and Teutamus. But his efforts were unavailing: Teutamus was tempted for a moment, but was recalled to the path of duty by his firmer-minded colleague, and the Argyraspids continued faithful. (Diod. xviii. 62, 63.)

7. An officer in the service of Antiochus the Great, who commanded the garrison of Abydos in the war against the Romans. He was besieged by the Roman fleet under C. Livius (b. c. 190), and was desirous to capitulate ; but before the terms could be agreed upon, the news of the defeat of the Rhodian fleet under Pamphilidas caused Livius to withdraw in all haste in order to oppose Polyxen- idas. (Liv, xxxvii. 12.) [E. H. B.]

PHILOTAS («t>tAwras), a dithyrambic poet and musician, the disciple of Philoxenus, is only worthy of notice as having once gained a victory over his great contemporary Timotheus. (Bode, Gesch. d. Hellen. Dichtkunst, vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 324.) [P.S.]

PHILOTAS (SuAcoras), a physician of Am-phissa in Locris, who was born about the middle of the first century b. c. He studied at Alexan­dria, and was in that city at the same time with the triumvir Antony, of whose profusion and ex­travagance he was an eye-witness. He became acquainted with the triumvir's son Antyllus, with whom he sometimes supped, about b. c. 30. On one occasion, when a certain physician had been annoy­ing the company by his logical sophisms and for­ward behaviour, Philotas silenced him at last with the following syllogism: —" Cold water is to be given in a certain fever; but every one who has a fever has a certain fever; therefore cold water is to be given in all fevers ;" which so pleased An­tyllus, who was at table, that he pointed to a sideboard covered with large goblets, and said, " I give you all these, Philotas." As Antyllus was quite a lad at that time, Philotas scrupled to accept such a gift, but was encouraged to do so by one of the attendants, who asked him if he did not know that the giver was a son of the triumvir Antonius, and that he had full power to make such presents. (Plut. Anton, 28.)

He may perhaps be the same physician, of whose medical formulae one is quoted by Celsus (De Med. v. 19. p. 89) and Asclepiades Phar- macion (ap. Gal. De Compos. Medicam. sec. Gen. iv. 13, vol. xiii. p. 745), and who must have lived in or before the first century b. c. (See also Gal. I. c. p. 542 ; and De Compos. Medicam. sec. log. iv. 8, v. 8, vol. xii. pp. 752, 838.) [ W. A. G.]

PHILOTHEUS ($i\o0€o's), 1. Patriarch of


alexandria, a man of luxurious habits and a most scandalous course of life, lived about a. d. 995. He wrote four works, the titles of which, as translated from the Arabic, are, 1. Declarator; 2. Rara Commentatorum, et £)epravationes Here-ticorum; 3. Detectio Arcanorum; 4. Autobiogra-phia. The whole of these works is lost, and it does not appear whether the author wrote in Arabic or in Greek. A sermon, De Mandatis Do­mini nostri Jesu Christi, ed. Greek and Latin by P. Possinus in his Ascetica^ is ascribed to one S. Pilotheus, perhaps the aforesaid. (Cave, Hist. Lit. ad an. 995.)

2. coccjnus, patriarch of constantinople, a man of great and deserved renown. He was pro­bably born in the beginning of the 14th century, and early took the monastic habit. After living for a considerable time as a monk in, and after­wards superior of, the convent of St. Laura on Mount Sinai, he was appointed archbishop of Heracleia (before 1354). In 1355 he was em­ployed by the emperor John Cantacuzenus, in bringing about a reconciliation between Michael, the son, and John Palaeologus, the son-in-law of the emperor ; and in the same year he was chosen patriarch of Constantinople, in the place of Cal-listus, who, however, recovered his see after John Palaeologus had taken possession of Constantinople. Callistus, however, died soon afterwards, and now Philotheus was once more placed on the patri­archal chair, which post he occupied with great dignity till 1371 according to Cave, or 1376 ac­cording to the Chronologia reformata of J. B. Ric-cioli quoted by Fabricius. We give below the titles of the most important of the numerous works of Philotheus, very few of which have been published. 1. Liturgia et Ordo instituendi Diaconum, printed in Latin in the 26th vol. of Bill. Pat. Max. 2. Libri XV. Antirrhetici, a defence of his friend the celebrated Palama, extant in different libraries. 3. Sermo Encomiasticus in tres Hierarchas^ Basi-lium, Greyorium Tlieologum^ et Joannem Chrysos-tomum, Latin, in the 26th vol. of Bibl. Pat. Max., Gr. and Lat., by Jac. Pontanus, together with Philippi Solitarii Dioptra, Ingolstadt, 1604, 8vo. ; by Fronto Ducaeus, in the 2d vol. of Auctuar. Pair. Paris, 1624. 3. Oratio de Cruce, Gr. and Lat. apud Gretser. De Cruce, Ingolstadt, 1616, fol., vol. ii.; there is another Oratio de Cruce, in the same volume, which is attributed by some to our Philotheus. 4. Oratio in tertiam Jejuniorum Do-minicam^ Gr. and Lat. ibid. 5. Refutatio Anathe-matismorum ab Harmenopulo scriptorum^ Gr. and Lat. apud Leunclav. Jus. Gr. Rom. lib. iv. 6. Confutatio Capitum XIV. Acindymi et Barlaami, extant in MS. 7. Homilia. 8. Compendium de Oeconomia Christi, &c. &c. Wharton in Cave and Fabricius give a catalogue of the numerous works of Philotheus. ( Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol.xi. p. 513, &c. ; Cave, Hist. Lit. ad an. 1362.)

3. monachus or sanctus, an unknown monk, wrote De Mandatis Domini nostri Jesu Christi, ed. Gr. and Lat. in P. Possinus, Ascetica^ Paris, 1684. Although this work bears the same title as the one quoted above under the head Philotheus Coc-cinus, the works as well as the authors are dif­ferent persons. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. xi. p. 519 ; Cave, Hist. Lit. Dissert. 1. p. 17. ed. Oxon.)

4. Archbishop of selymbria, of unknown age. wrote Oratio in T. AyotJtonicum^ which is still extant in MS. [W. P.]

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