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with Eustratii, episcopi Nicaeani (who lived about 1117) Commentarii on the same work. A Greek edition of 1534 is said to ^exist. Latin versions by Andreas Grateolus, Venice, 1542, fol., and Paris, 1543, fol. ; by Martianus Rota, Venice, 1559, 1568, fol. (3) In quatuor priores Libros Physicorum. Ed.: the text, cum Praefatione Vic-toris Trincavelli ad Casparum Contarenmn Cardi-nalem, Venice, 1535, fol.; Latin version, by Gulielmus Dorotheus, Venice, 1539, ibid. 1541, fol. ; a better one by Baptista Rasarius, ibid. 1558, 1569,1581, fol. Philoponus speaks of his Scholia to the sixth book, whence we may infer that he commented upon the four last books also. (4) In Librum unicum Meteorum. The text ad calcem Olympiodori " In Meteora," Venice, 1551, fol. Latine, by Joannes Baptistus Camotius, Venice, 1551, 1567, fol. (5) In Libros III. de Anima. Ed. Graece, cum Trincavelli Epistola ad Nico-laum Rodulphum Cardinalem, Venice, 1553, fol. ; Latine, by Gentianus Hervetus, Lyon, 1544,1548. Venice, 1554, 1568 ; and by Matthaeus a Bove, Venice, 1544, 1581, all in fol. (6) In Libros V. De Generatione et Interitu. Graece^ cum Praefatione Asalani, Venice, 1527, fol., together with Alexander Aphrodiseus, Meteorologia. (7) In Libros V. De Generatione Animalium, probably by Philoponus. Ed. Graece cum Petri Corcyraei Epistola Graeca ad Andream Matthaeum Aqua-vivam, Venice, 1526, fol. ; Latine, by the same, ibid, eodem anno. Black letter. (8) In Libros -XIV. Metaphysicorum. Latine by Franciscus Pa-tricius, Ferrara, 1583, fol. The text was never published.
Philoponus wrote many other works, some of which are lost, and others have never been published. Fabricius gives an6i Index Scriptorum in Philop. De Mundi Aeternitate memoratorum," and an " Index Scriptorum in universis Philoponi ad Aristotelem Commentariis memoratorum," both of great length. (Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. x. p. 639, &c.; Cave, Hist. Lit. vol. i.) [ W. P.]
PHILOSTEPHANUS (*i\offrtywos). 1. A comic poet, but whether of the Old or Middle Comedy is uncertain. Athenaeus (vii. p. 293, a.) quotes from his atjaios, in which he appears to have satirized the parasitical habits of the Delians. (Meineke, Frag. Com. Graec. vol. i. p. 498, vol. iv. p. 589.)
2. Of Cyrene, an Alexandrian writer of history and geography, the friend or disciple of Callima-chus, flourished under Ptolemy II. Philadelphus, about b. c. 249 (Ath. viii. p. 331, d.). We have quotations from the following works of his: Tlepl v iroTO.fji.tav (Ath. /. <?.), vrepi r<av ev ry Tr6\€ow (Ath. vii. p. 297, f.) ; T*pi vricroov (Harpocr. s. v. ^rpv/^rj ; Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. iii. 1242 ; Schol. ad LycopJir. 447, 586), of which work a history of Cyprus formed a part (Clem. Alex. Protrept. p. 17 ; Siebelis, Phanodemi Frag. p. 70) ; Ta rj-ireiptoTiKd, (Harpocr. s. v. Boy'xera) ; Tre/ji eup^jUaTcoy (Clem. Alex. Strom. i. p. 133. s. 308 ; Plin. //. N. vii. 56. s. 57) ; and an historical work, the title of which is not specified. (Plut. Lye. 23.)
To the above citations several others might be added, but all the extant titles of the writings of Philostephanus have been mentioned. Some writers identify him with the comic poet ; whether rightly or not can hardly be determined (Fabric. Bibl. Grace, vol. ii. p. 150, n., vol. iii. p. 814 ; Vossius,
de Hist. Graec. p. 129, ed. Westermann ; Clinton, F. H. s. a. 249.)
3. A poet of Mantineia, whose hymns are quoted by Ptolemy, the son of Hephaestion, but of whom nothing further is known. (Phot. Bibl. Cod. 190, p. 148. 41, ed. Bekker.) [P. S.]
PHILOSTORGIUS (fctAoorrfpyws), an ecclesiastical historian. He was a native of Borissus in Cappadocia, the son of Carterius and Eulampia. He was born in the reign of Valentinian and Valens in a. d. 358, according to Gothofredus (Proleg. ad Philost. p. 5, &c.), about a. d. 367, according to Vossius (de Hist. Gr. p. 314). He was 20 years old when Eunomius was expelled from Caesareia [eunomius]. Like his father Carterius, he warmly embraced the doctrines of Eunomius He wrote an ecclesiastical history, from the heresy of Arius in a. d. 300, down to the period when Theodosius the Younger conferred the empire of the West on Valentinian the Younger (a. d. 425). The work was composed in twelve books, which began respectively with the twelve letters of his name, so as to form a sort of acrostic. In this history he lost no opportunity of extolling the Arians and Eunomians, while he overwhelmed the orthodox party with abuse, with the single exception of Gregorius of Nazianzus. Photius charges him with introducing gross misrepresentations and unfounded statements, and says that his work is not a history, but a panegyric upon the heretics. Philostorgius nevertheless was a man of learning, and was possessed of considerable geographical and astronomical knowledge. Being a heretic, it is not to be wondered at that his work has not come down to us. An abstract of it, however, was made by Photius in a separate work, which has been preserved. Photius characterises him as being elegant in his style, making use of figurative expressions, though not in excess. His figures were, however, sometimes harsh and far-fetched, and his narrative involved and indistinct. (Phot. Bibl. cod. xl.) The abstract of Photius was published at Geneva in 1643 by Jac. Godefroi, or Gothofredus, and in a somewhat corrected form, with a new Latin translation by H. Valesius (Paris, 1673), together with the ecclesiastical history of Theo-doritus, Evagrius and Theodoras ; also by Reading, Cantabr. 1720. (Fabric. Bibl. Gr. vii. p. 420, &c. ; Voss. de Hist. Gr. p. 313, &c.; Scholl, Gescli. der GriecJi. Lit. vol. iii. p. 31 3.) [C. P. M.]
PHILOSTORGIUS" (StApo-nJpyios), a physician in the time of Valentinian and Valens, in the latter half of the fourth century after Christ. He was the father of Philagrius and Posidonius, and is said to have been the chief physician of his age. (Philostorg. Hist. Eccles. viii. 10.) [W. A. G.]
PHILOSTRATUS (*iAJ<rr/>oTos) historical. 1. An Athenian, who seems to have followed the infamous trade of a brothel-keeper. He is satirized by Aristophanes, who calls him KwaXwirf]^ a cross between a dog and a fox. (Arist. Eq. 1064, Lys. 957.)
2. Of Colonus, is mentioned by Demosthenes (c. Meid. p. 535) as the bitterest accuser of Cha-brias, in the famous trial about the loss of Oropus, b. c. 366. [callistratus, No. 3; chabrias.] He appears to have been the same person who is spoken of in the oration against Neaera (p. 1352) as a friend, when a young unmarried man, of Ly-sias the sophist, who probably should not be identified with the celebrated orator of the same name.