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On this page: Philonides – Philonis – Philonoe – Philonome – Philonomus – Philopator – Philophron


drama, in which a poet was at the same time the actor, either of his own plays, or of those of another poet. There is a curious confirmation of one of the arguments just urged in one of the Scholia on that passage of the Clouds which has so misled the commentators (v. 531).—A^Aoz/o-n 6 3»iAaw5?|s /cat 6 KaAAiVrparos-, ol "T5TEPON yevo/Jievoi viroKpLrai tov 'A/nfTTo^dVous, the author of which passage evidently inserted vffrepov in order to gloss over the absurdity of giving Sia different meanings in the Didascaiiae of the earlier and the later plays.

One more question of interest still remains, re­specting the knowledge which the Athenian public had of the real author of those plays which appeared under other names, especially in the case of Aris­tophanes ; concerning which the reader is referred to Bergk (/. c. pp. 930, &c.), who sums up the whole discussion in words to the following effect:— that Aristophanes, through youthful timidity, when he began to write plays, entrusted them to Callis-tratus ; but afterwards also, even when he had made the experiment of exhibiting in his own name,,he still retained his former custom, and ge­nerally devolved the task of bringing out the play on Callistratus or Philonides ; that both these were poets, and not actors ; nor did even Aristo­phanes himself act the part of Cleon in the Knights ; that the fame of Aristophanes, though under the name of another, quickly spread abroad ; and that it was he himself, and not Callistratus, whom Cleon thrice attacked in the courts of law (p. 939).

Philonides, the comic poet, must not be con­founded with a certain Philonides who is attacked as a profligate voluptuary by Aristophanes (Plut. ]79, 303 ; comp. SchoL), and other comic poets, such as Nicochares, Theopompus, and Philyllius. (Bergk, Frag. Com. Att. Antiq. p. 400.) [P. S.]

PHILONIDES (<i><Aaw5r7s). 1. A physician of Catana in Sicily, the tutor of Paccius Antiochus (Scribon. Larg. De Compos. Medicam. c. 23. § 97. p. 209 ; Marcell. Empir. De Medicam. c. 20, p. 324), who lived about the beginning of the Christian era. He is probably the physician who is quoted by Dioscorides, and said by him to have been a native of Enna in Sicily {De Mat. Med. iv. 148, vol. i. p. 629) ; by Erotianus {Lex. Hippocr. p. 144) ; and also by Galen, who refers to his eighteenth book, Tlepl *IarpiKfjs, De Medicina. (De Differ. Puls. iv. 10, vol. viii. p. 748.)

2. A physician of Dyrrachium in Illyricum, who was a pupil of Asclepiades of Bithynia in the first century b. c., practised in his own country with some reputation, and wrote as many as five and forty books. (Steph. Byz. a v. Avfipdxiov.')

One of these physicians (for, though they were probably contemporaries, there is no reason for supposing them to have been the same individual) wrote a work, Hfpl Mupcoz/ /cat 2r€(/>aVcof, De Unguentis et Coronis, which is quoted by Athen- aeus (xv. 17, 18, 45, pp. 675, 676, 691), and one on Pharmacy quoted by Andromachus (ap. Gal. De Compos. Medicam. sec. Gen. viii. 7, vol. xiii. p. 978), and by Marcellus Empiricus (De Medicam. c. 29, p. 380). [W. A. G.j

PHILONIS. [chione and ceyx.]

PHILONOE (<i>tAoj>o7?), the name of two my­ thical personages, one a daughter of Tyndareos, who was rendered immortal by Artemis (Apollod. iii. 10. § 6), and the other a daughter of Jobates, and wife of Bellerophontes (ii. 3. § 2). The latter is commonly culled Anticleia. [L. S J


PHILONOME (^iA.oj/0^1?). 1. A daughter of Nyctimus and Arcadia, and a companion of Artemis, became by Ares the mother of Lycastus and Parrhasius ; but from fear of her father she threw her twin babes into the river Erymanthus. They were carried by the river-god into a hollow oak tree, where they were suckled by a she-wolf, until the shepherd Tyliphus found them and took them home. (Plut. Paral. min. 36.)

2. [tenes.] [L. S.]

PHILONOMUS (*i\<fw/xos), a son of Elec-tryon and Anaxo. (Apollod. ii. 4. § 5 ; Strab. viii. pp. 364, 384 ; comp. electryon.) [L. S.]

PHILOPATOR (4>i\oTrd™p). This name, which we find applied as an epithet or distinctive appellation to several of the kings of Syria and Egypt, appears to have been borne as a proper name by two kings of Cilicia ; at least no other is mentioned either by historians or on their coins.

philopator I. was a son of tarcondimo­tus I. In common with his father he had espoused the cause of Antony during the civil war between the latter and Octavian, but on learning the tidings of the battle of Actium, and the death of Tarcondimotus b. c. 31, he declared in favour of the conqueror. He was nevertheless deprived of his kingdom by Octavian, and we do not learn that he was subsequently reinstated, though in b. c. 20 we find his paternal dominions restored to his brother, Tarcondimotus. (Dion Cass. Ii. 2, 7, liv. 9.)

philopator II. is known only from the mention by Tacitus of his death in a. d. 17. (Tac. Ann. ii. 42.) Eckhel supposes him to have been a son of Tarcondimotus II., but it does not seem quite clear that he is distinct from the preceding, who may have been allowed to resume the sove­ reignty after his brother's death. (See, concerning these obscure princes of Cilicia, Eckhel, vol. iii. p. 83 ; Walther, ad Tac. I. c.) [E.H.B.]


PHILOPHRON (^Ao^pcor/), a Rhodian, who was sent ambassador together with Theaetetus to the ten Roman deputies appointed to settle the affairs of Asia after the defeat of Antiochus, b. c. 189. They succeeded in obtaining the assignment of Lycia to the Rhodians as a reward for their services in the late contest (Polyb. xxiii. 3). At the commencement of the war between Rome and Perseus, the Rhodians were divided into two par­ties, the one disposed to favour the Macedonian king, the other to adhere closely to the Reman alliance. Philophron was one of the principal leaders of the latter ; and we find him (together with Theaetetus) taking a prominent part in op­posing all concessions to Perseus. But though in b.c. 169 they were still able to carry a decree for sending ambassadors to the senate at Rome, as well as to the consul Q. Marcius, to renew and strengthen the friendly relations between the two

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