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involved in war with the colonists from Pallene, Philoctetes assisted the Rhodians, and was slain. His tomb and sanctuary, in which heifers were sa crificed to him, were shown at Macalla. (Tzetz. ad Lye. 911, 927.) [L. S.]
PHILODAMUS, of Bassus, a chaser in gold, mentioned in a Latin inscription. (Gruter, p. dcxxxviii. 10). [P. S.]
PHILODEMUS (<J>fAo5r7,uos), an Argive, was sent by Hieronymus, king of Syracuse, to Han nibal in b. c. 215, to propose an alliance. In b. c. 212, when Marcellus was besieging Syracuse, we find Philodemus governor of the fort of Euryalus, on the top of Epipolae, and this he surrendered to the Romans on condition that he and his garrison should be allowed to depart uninjured to join Epicydes in Achradina. (Polyb. vii. 7 ; Liv. xxiv. 6, xxv. 25.) [E. E.]
PHILODFMUS (*i\<f8i7|uos) of Gadara, in Palestine, an Epicurean philosopher and epigrammatic poet, contemporary with Cicero, who makes a violent attack upon him, though without mentioning his name, as the abettor of Piso in all his profligacy (Cic. in Pis. 28, 29), though in another place he speaks of him in the following high terms :—" Si-ronem et Philodemum cum optimos viros, turn doc-tissimos homines" (De Fin. ii. 35) ; and indeed, in the former passage, while attacking his character, he praises his poetical skill and elegance, his knowledge of philosophy, and his general information, in the highest terms. From the language of Cicero, it may be inferred that Philodemus was one of the most distinguished Epicurean philosophers of his time, and that he lived on terms of intimacy with men of the highest rank in Rome. He is also mentioned by Diogenes Laertius (x. 3), by Strabo (xvi. p. 759), and by Horace (Sat. i. 2. 121).
His epigrams were included in the Anthology of Philip of Thessalonica, and he seems to have been the earliest poet who had a place in that collection. The Greek Anthology contains thirty-four of them, which are chiefly of a light and amatory character, and which quite bear out Cicero's statements con cerning the licentiousness of his matter and the elegance of his manner. Of his prose writings Diogenes (I.e.) quotes from the tenth bookrTjs twv (pikoffofyw owra^ecos, and a MS. has been disco vered at Herculaneuin containing a work by him on music, irepl /novffiKrjs. (Menag. ad Diog. L'dert. I.e.; Fabric. JBibL Graec. vol. iii. p. 609, iv. p. 491 ; Brunck, Anal. vol. ii. p. 83 ; Jacobs, Anih. Graec. vol. ii. p. 70, xiii. p. 937 ; Orelli, Onom. Tullian. s. v.~) [P. S.]
PHILODOTUS (SiAJSoTos), a physician of whom Alexander Trallianus * (De Medic, i. 17, p. 165) tells an anecdote of the ingenious way in which he cured a melancholy and hypochondriacal patient, who fancied he had had his head cut oil". Philodotus suddenly put on his head a leaden hat,
* It is probable, however, that the true reading in this passage is Philotimus. [PmLOTiMUb.]
the weight of which made the poor man think that he had recovered his head, so that he was free frora his fancy ever after. Of the date of Philodotus it can only be said that he must have lived in or before the sixth century after Christ. [W. A. G.]
PHILOETIUS (4>iAomos),the celebrated cow herd of Odysseus, who is frequently mentioned in the Odyssey (xx. 24, 185,254, xxi. 240, 388, xxii. 359.) [L. S.]
2. A geographer of Italy, spoken of by Tzetzes (ad LycopJir. 1085).
PHILOLAUS (SiAo'Aaos), that is, friend of the people, was a surname of Asclepius, under which he had a temple in Laconia (Paus. iii. 22. § 7). It occurs also as the proper name of a son of Minos and the nymph Pareia, in Paros. (Apollod. ii. 9. § 5, iii. 1. § 2.) [L. S.]
PHILOLAUS (*i\o'Aaoy), a Corinthian of the house of the Bacchiadae. Having become ena moured of a youth named Diocles, and the latter having quitted Corinth, Philolaus accompanied him. They settled in Thebes, where Philolaus proposed some laws, which were adopted by the Thebans (Aristot. Pol. ii. 9). [C. P. M.]
PHILOLAUS («fuAo'Aaos), a distinguished Pythagorean philosopher. According to Diogenes Laertius (viii. 84) he was born at Crotona ; according to other authorities (lamblich. Vit. Pyth. 36) at Tarentum. It is more probable that these are varying statements with regard to the same person, than that two different persons of the same name are referred to. The most secure datum for ascertaining the age of Philolaus is the statement of Plato (Phaed. p. 61, d.) that he was the instructor of Simmias and Cebes at Thebes. This would make him a contemporary of Socrates, and agrees with the statement that Philolaus and Democritus were contemporaries (Apollod. ap. Diog. Latrt. ix. 38). The statement that after the death of Socrates Plato heard Philolaus in Italy, which rests only on the authority of Diogenes Laertius (iii. 6), may safely be rejected. Philolaus is not mentioned among the Pythagorean teachers of Plato by Cicero, Appuleius, or Hieronymus (In-terpr. ad Diog. Lavri. iii. 6). Philolaus lived for some time at Heracleia, where he was the pupil of Aresas, or (as Plutarch calls him) Arcesus (lamblich. Vit. Pyth. c. 36, comp. Plut. de Gen. Socr. 13, though the account given by Plutarch in the passage referred to involves great inaccuracies, see Bockh, Philolaos^ p. 8). The absurd statement of lamblichus (c. 23) that Philolaus was a pupil of Pythagoras, is contradicted by himself elsewhere (c. 31), where he says that several generations intervened between them. The date when Philolaus removed to Thebes is not known. Bockh (ibid. p. 10) conjectures that family connections induced Philolaus and Lysis to take up their abode in Thebes ; and we do, in point of fact, hear of a Philolaus of the house of the Bacchiadae, who gave some laws to the Thebans. (See the preceding article.) That Philolaus was driven out of Italy at the time when the Pythagorean brotherhood was broken up (i. e. shortly after the overthrow of Sybaris), is inconsistent with the chronology, though it is possible enough that there may have been, at a later period, more than one expulsion of Pythagoreans who attempted to revive in