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his poetry except a single line, which seems to come from a satyric drama (Ath. ii. p. 66). This line has ledJMeineke to doubt whether there was not a comic poet of the same name, identical, perhaps, with Philocles, the father of Philippides. The scholiast on Aristophanes (Av. 281) and Suidas, followed by Eudocia, expressly mention a comic poet Philocles ; but the passages themselves con­tain abundant proof that they refer to one and the same person as the subject of this article. The error of writing kw/aikos and /cw/x^Sia for rpayiKos and Tpaycp'Sia, and conversely, is excessively common in the works of the grammarians ; and~ especially when, as often happens, the tragic poet has been an object of ridicule to the comic poets, which we have seen to be the case with Philocles.

2. The great-grandson of the former, son of Asty-damas the elder, arid brother of Astydamas the younger, was also a tragic poet, according to the scholiast on Aristophanes (Av. 281), but a general, according to Suidas. Kayser enters on an elabo­rate and ingenious argument to show that there is no ground for supposing that the second Philocles was a tragic poet ; but we ought probably to accept the express statement of the scholiast, and to change (TTparrjyos in Suidas into rpayiKos. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. ii. p. 314 ; Welcker, die Griech. Trag. p. 967 ; Kayser, Hist Or it. Trag. Graec. p. 46 ; Meineke, Hist. Crit. Com. Grace, p. 521 ; Bode, Gesch. d. Hellen. Diclctkunst, vol. iii. pt. i. pp. 538, 539 ; Clinton, F. PL vol. ii. p. xxxv.) [P. S.J

PHILOCLES, artists. 1. An Egyptian artist, of the mythical, or, at all events, of an unknown period, to whom some ascribed the invention of the first step in painting, which others attributed to Cleanthes, a Corinthian, namely, tracing the out­line of the shadow of a figure cast on a wall, ovcia, <rKiaypd/u.jLLa, a silhouette. (Plin. H. N. xxxv. 3. s. 5 ; comp. ardices.)

2. An Athenian architect, of Acharnae, who is not mentioned by any ancient author, but who must have been one of the chief architects of the best period of Greek art, for he was the architect of the beautiful Ionic temple of Athena Polias, in 01. Ill, b.c. 336—332, as we learn from the cele­ brated inscription relating to the building of the temple, which was found in the Acropolis, and is now in the British Museum. (Bockh, Corp. Tnscr. vol. i. No. M>0, where Bockh enters into an elabo­ rate and valuable discussion of all that is known of the temple.) [P. S.]

PHILOCRATES (QiKoKpdr-ns). 1. An Athe­nian, son of Demeas, was commander of the rein­forcement which was sent to the siege of Melos in b.c. 416, and enabled the Athenians to bring it to a successful issue. (Thuc. v. ] 16.)

2. An Athenian, son of Ephialtes, was sent in 15. c. 390 with ten triremes to Cyprus, to the aid of Evagoras, though the latter had revolted frore the king of Persia (Artaxerxes II.), who was an ally of the Athenians at the time. On his voyage, Philocrates fell in with Teleutias, the Lacedaemo­nian, who was sailing to Rhodes with 27 ships, and who, notwithstanding the enmity between Sparta and Persia, attacked and captured the whole Athenian squadron (Xen. Hell. iv. 8. § 24 ; comp. Lys. pro Bon. Arist. pp. 153—155 ; Diod. xiv. 97, .98.) In a passage of Demosthenes (c. Aristocr. p. 659) we are told that on one occasion, when the Lacedaemonians, with solemn assurances of good faith, had offered to give any pledge for it which


might be required, Philocrates answered that no pledge could be satisfactory to him except a proof of their not being able to do injury. In this pas­sage, however, the name of Iphicrates occurs as a various reading. The person of whom we have been speaking was perhaps the same Philocrates, who, after the execution of Ergocles for treason ana1 peculation, was accused, in the speech of Lysias, yet extant, of being in possession of the confiscated property of the traitor, whose intimate friend he had been, and who during his command had made him his trierarch and receiver of his money. (Lys. c. Erg., c. Phil. pp. 179—182; Schn. ad Xen. Hell. I.e.) [thrasybulus.] The name Philo­crates in Xen. Hell. iv. 4. § 9, seems clearly to be an error for Iphicrates. (Schn. ad loc. ; comp. Diod. xiv. 86 ; Polyaen. i. 9.)

3. An Athenian orator, of the demus of Agnus, who took a most prominent part in bringing about the peace with Philip in b. c. 346. Together with Demosthenes, he strongly supported the petition made by the friends of some of the Athenian pri­soners taken in Olynthus, in b.c. 347, that an ambassador should be sent to negotiate about their ransom. He also came forward with a motion, which was carried unanimously, to permit Philip to send a herald and ambassadors to Athens to treat for peace. For this he was impeached by Lycinus, as having originated an illegal decree ; but he was defended by Demosthenes (illness pre­venting his personal appearance at the trial), and was acquitted. Matters being at length ripe for the final step, Philocrates moved that ten ambas­sadors should be appointed to negotiate with the Macedonian king. A decree to this effect was passed, and he was himself included in the em­bassy. In the same j'ear, when the Macedonian ambassadors arrived at Athens, Philocrates pro­posed to concede everything to Philip, and to ex­clude expressly the Phocians and Halus and Cersobleptes from the treaty. This proposal of his, however, was opposed both by Aeschines and De­mosthenes, and he was obliged to abandon it. He was again a member of the second embassy, which was sent to receive from Philip the ratification of the peace and alliance ; and, on the return of the envoys to Athens, when Demosthenes endeavoured to excite suspicion in the people of Philip's inten­tions with respect to Phocis, Philocrates joined Aeschines in persuading them to pay no regard to his warnings, and bore him down with ribaldry and clamour, tauntingly remarking that it was no wonder that his own way of thinking should differ from that of one who was fool enough to be a water-drinker. He then carried a decree, which, while it gave high praise to Philip for his fair professions, and extended the treaty to his suc­cessors, declared that if the Phocians would not surrender the temple to the Amphictyons, the Athenian people would assist in compelling them. Thus he played all along into the hands of Philip, and it seems altogether beyond a doubt that he had suffered himself to be corrupted, and received Olynthian prisoners and lands in Phocis as the price of his treason. Indeed, he himself made no secret of his newly-gotten wealth, which he ostentatiously displayed, and expended in luxury and profligacy. In b. c. 344 Demosthenes, in his second Philippic, called the attention of the Athenians to the man* ner in which they had been misled by Aeschines and Philocrates, without however mentioning the

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