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deed so eminent that Philip regarded his relationship to him as a subject of exultation (Socrates, H. E. vii. 27). Having entered the church, lie was ordained deacon, and had much intercourse with Chrysostom ; in the titles of some MSS. he is styled his Syncellus, or personal attendant, which makes it probable that he was, from the early part of his ecclesiastical career, connected with the church at Constantinople. Liberatus (Breviar. c. 7) says he was ordained deacon by Chrysostom ; but Socrates, when speaking of his intimacy with that eminent man, does not say he was ordained by him. Philip devoted himself to literary pursuits, and collected a large library. He cultivated the Asiatic or diffuse style of composition, and became a voluminous writer. At what period of his life his different works were produced is not known. His Ecclesiastical History was, as we shall see, written after his disappointment in obtaining the patriarchate : but as his being a candidate for that high office seems to imply some previous celebrity, it may be inferred that his work or works in reply to the emperor Julian's attacks on Christianity were written at an earlier period. On the death of Atticus patriarch of Constantinople a. d. 425 [atticus] Philip, then a presbyter, apparently of the great church of Constantinople, and Proclus, another presbyter, were proposed, each by his own partizans, as candidates for the vacant see ; but the whole people were bent upon the election of Sisinnius, also a presbyter, though not of Constantinople, but of a church in Elaea, one of the suburbs. (Socrates, H.E. vii. 26.) The statement of Socrates as to the unanimity of the popular wish leads to the inference that the supporters of Philip and Proclus were among the clergy. Sisinnius was the successful candidate ; and Philip, mortified at his defeat, made in his Ecclesiastical History such severe strictures on the election of his more fortunate rival, that Socrates could not venture to transcribe his remarks ; and has expressed his strong disapproval of his headstrong temper. On the death of Sisinnius (a. d. 428) the supporters of Philip were again desirous of his appointment, but the emperor, to prevent disturbances, determined that no ecclesiastic of Constantinople should succeed to the vacancy ; and the ill-fated heresiarch Nestorius [nestorius], from Antioch, was consequently chosen. After the deposition of Nestorius at the council of Ephesus (a. d. 431), Philip was a third time candidate for the patriarchate, but was again unsuccessful. Nothing is known of him after this. It has been conjectured that he was dead before the next vacancy in the patriarchate A. d. 434, when his old competitor Proclus was chosen. Certainly there is no notice that Philip was again a candidate : but tl^e prompt decision of the emperor Theodosius in Proclus' favour prevented all competition, so that no inference can be drawn from Philip's quiescence.
Philip wrote, 1. Multa volumina contra Impe-ratorem Julianum Apostatarn. (Liberatus, Breviar. c. 7 ; comp. Socrat. //. E. vii. 27.) It is not clear from the expression of Liberatus, which we have given as the title, whether Philip wrote many works, or, as is more likely, one work in many parts, in reply to Julian. 2. 'laropia XpiffTiaviKrf, Historia Christiana. The work was very large, consisting of thirty-six B:£Aoi or B*£Aia, Libri, each subdivided into twenty-four rouoi or
i. e. sections. This voluminous work appears to have comprehended both sacred and ecclesiastical history, beginning from the Creation, and coming down to Philip's own day, as appears by his record of the election of Sisinnius, already noticed. It appears to have been finished not very long after that event. Theophanes places its completion in a. m. 5922, Alex. era = a. d. 430 ; which, according to him, was the year before the death of Sisinnius. That the work was completed before the death of Sisinnius is probable from the apparent silence of Philip as to his subsequent disappointments in obtaining the patriarchate ; but as Sisinnius, according to a more exact chronology, died a. d. 428, we may conclude that the work was finished in or before that year, and, .consequently, that the date assigned by Theophanes is rather too late. The style was verbose and wearisome, neither polished nor agreeable ; and the matter such as to display ostentatiously the knowledge of., the writer, rather than to conduce to the improvement of the reader. It was, in fact, crammed with matter of every kind, relevant and irrelevant: questions of geometry, astronomy, arithmetic and music ; descriptions of islands, mountains and trees, rendered it cumbersome and unreadable. Chronological arrangement was disregarded. The work is lost, with the exception of three fragments. One of these, De Scholae Catecheticae Alexandrinae Sue-cessione, on the succession of teachers in the Catechetical School of Alexandria, was published from a MS. in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, by Dodwell, with his Dissertationes in Irenaeum, 8vo. Oxford, 1689, and has been repeatedly reprinted. It is given in the ninth volume of the Bibliotheca Patrum of Galland, p. 401. Another fragment in the same MS., De Constantino, Maximiano, et Li-cinio Aiigustis, was prepared for publication by Crusius, but has never, we believe, been actually published. The third fragment, Ta y^vo^va ei>
', Ada Disputationis de Christo, in Perside, inter Christianos, Gentiles, et Judaeos habilae, is (or was) in the Imperial Library at Vienna. Philip was present at the disputation. (Socrates, H. E. vii. 26, 27, 29, 35 ; Liberatus, I. c.; Phot. Bill. cod. 35 ; Theophan. Chronog. p. 75, ed. Paris, p. 60, ed. Venice, vol. i. p. 135, ed. Bonn ; Tillemont, Plist. des Empereurs, vol. vi. p. 130 ; Cave, Hist. Lilt, ad ann. 418, vol. i. p. 395 ; Oudin, De Scrip-torib. Eccles. vol. i. col. 997 ; Fabric. Bibl. Grace. vol. vi. pp. 739, 747, 749, vol. vii. p. 418, vol. x. p. 691 ; Galland, Biblioth. Patrum, vol. ix. Prol. c. 11 ; Lambecius, Commentar. de Biblioth. Cae-saraea, lib. s. vol. v. col. 289, vol. vi. pars ii. col. 406, ed. Kollar.)
27. solitarius. The title Solitarius is given by bibliographers to a Greek monk of the time of the emperor Alexius I. Comnenus, of whom nothing further seems to be known than what may be gleaned from the titles and introductions of his extant works. He wrote:—1. Aionrpa, Dioptra^s. Amussis Fidei et Vitae Christianae, written in the kind of measure called " versus politici," * and in
* These "versus politici" are thus described by the Jesuit Goar : " In versibus politicis, numerua syllabarum ad cantum non ad exactae poetices pros-odiam observatur. Octava syllaba, ubi caesura est, medium versus tenet, reliquae septern perficiunt.