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great," and which he seems to have practised quite as much from choice as from policy, we may well admit that he does not appear to disadvantage, even morally speaking, by the side of his fellow-con querors of mankind. (Demosth. Olynth., Phil., de Fals. Leg., de Cor., de Chers., de Pac.; Aesch. de Fals. Leg., c. Ctes.; Isocr. Phil, Ep. ad Phil.; Diod. xvi. ; Just. vii.—ix.; Plut. Demosth., Phoc., Alex.* Reg. et Imp. Apoph.; Ath. xi. p. 476, xiii. pu 557, xiv. p. 614 ; Strab. vii. pp. 307, 320, 323, viii. pp. 361, 374, ix. p. 437 ; Ael. F. //. iv. 19, vi. 1, viii. 12, 15, xii. 53, 54, xiii. 7, 11 ; Gell. ix. 3 ; Cic. de Off. ii. 14, 15, Tusc. Quaest. v. 14, ad Ait. i. 16 ; Polyb. ii. 48, iii. 6, v. 10, viii. 11—13, ix. 28, &c. xvii. 14 ; Leland, Life of Philip; Winiewski, Comm. Hist, et Chronol. in Dem. Orat. de Cor.; Drumann, Gesch. des Verfalls der Griech- isclien Staaten; Wachsmuth, Hist. Ant. vol. ii. Eng. transl.; Weiske, de Plyperb. Errorum in Hist. Phil. Genitrice ; Thirl wall's History of Greece, vol. v. vi.) [E. E.J
COIN OF PHILIPPUS II., KING OF MACEDONIA.
PHILIPPUS III. (*fAwnros), king of mace donia. The name of Philip was bestowed by the Macedonian army upon Arrhidaeus, the bastard son of Philip II., when he was raised to the throne after the death of Alexander III., and is the only appellation which appears upon his coins. He returned to Macedonia, where he and his wife Eurydice were put to death by order of Olympias, b.c. 317. For his life and reign, see arrhi daeus. [E. H. B.]
COIN OF PHILIPPUS III. KING OF MACEDONIA.
PHILIPPUS IV. (*f\«nros), king of macedonia, was the eldest son of Cassander, whom he succeeded on the throne, b. c. 297, or, according to Clinton, early in 296. The exact period of his reign is uncertain, but it appears to have lasted only a few months, when he was carried off by a consumptive disorder, b.c. 296. No events are recorded to us of this short interval; but it appears that he maintained the friendly relations with Athens which had been established by his father, and he was probably advancing into Greece to support his partisans in that country, when his death took place at Elateia in Phocis. (Paus. ix. 7. § 3 ; Justin. xv. 4, xvi. 1 ; Porphyr. ap. Euseb. Arm. p. 155; Dexipp. ap Syncell. p. 504, ed. Bonn; Droysen, Hellenism, vol. i. pp. 565, 566 ; Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. pp. 180, 236.) [E. H. B.]
COIN OF PHILIPPUS IV. KING OF MACEDONIA.
PHILIPPUS V. (*fA/ir7ros), king of macedonia, son of Demetrius II., was one of the ablest arid most eminent of the Macedonian monarchs. It appears that he was born in the year b. c. 237, and he was thus only eight years old at the death of his father Demetrius. The sovereign power was consequently assumed by his uncle Antigonus Doson, who, though he certainly ruled as king rather than merely as guardian of his nephew, was faithful to the interests of Philip, whom he regarded as his natural successor, and to whom he transferred the sovereignty at his death, in b. c. 220, to the exclusion of his own children. (Polyb. ii. 45, 70, iv. 2 ; Paus. viii. 8. § 9 ; Justin. xxviii. 4; Porphyr. ap. Euseb. Arm. p. 158.) He was careful however to appoint friends of his own to all the more important offices of the state ; one of whom, Apelles, bore the title of guardian of the young king (Polyb. iv. 87), though the latter seems to have in fact assumed the administration of affairs into his own hands from the very beginning of his reign. The prudent and vigorous administration of Antigonus had greatly strengthened the Macedonian empire ; but the youth of Philip, who was only seventeen years old at the time of his accession (Polyb. iv. 5; Justin makes him only fourteen), was regarded with contempt by his enemies, and the Aetolians seized the opportunity to commit acts of aggression and hostility in the Peloponnese. Aratus and the Achaeans immediately applied to the young king for assistance ; but Philip, though not unmindful of his allies, was at first unwilling to engage in open war with the Aetolians on account of what he regarded as mere plundering expeditions. Soon, however, the defeat of the Achaeans at Caphyae, and the daring outrage of the Aetolians in seizing and burning Cy-naetha, aroused him to the necessity of immediate action, and he proceeded in person to Corinth at the head of a considerable force. He arrived too late to act against the Aetolians, who had already quitted the Peloponnese, but by advancing to Tegea he succeeded in overawing the Lacedaemonians, who were secretly disposed to favour the Aetolians, and for a time prevented them from quitting the cause of their allies. He next presided at a general assembly of the Achaeans and other allied states at Corinth, at which war was declared against the Aetolians by the common consent of all present, including besides Philip himself and the Achaeans, the Boeotians, Phocians, Epeirots, Acarnanians, and Messenians. Few of these, however, were either disposed or ready to take an active part in immediate hostilities, while the Lacedaemonians and Eleans openly espoused the cause of the Aetolians. It was evident therefore that the chief burden of the war would devolve upon Philip and the Achaeans, and the young king returned to Macedonia to prepare for the contest. (Polyb. iv. 5,9,16,19,22—29, 31—36; Pint. Arat. 47). His first care was to fortify his own frontiers against the neighbouring barbarians, and