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true faith, and that a multitude of ancient writers unite in declaring that Constantine was the first Christian sovereign of Rome. The student will find all the arguments stated with great candour and all the authorities arranged with great precision in Tillemont, and we have nothing to add, except that the inquiry is a mere matter of curiosity, for it is agreed on all hands that this conversion, if real, exercised no influence on the condition of the Church, which certainly could have had little reason to be proud of such a bloodstained and compro­ mising proselyte. (Aur. Vict. de Caes. xxviii. Epit. xxviii. ; Eutrop. ix. 3 ; Zosim. i. 23, iii. 32; Zonar. xii. 19 ; Eckhel, vol. vii. p. 323 ; Euseb. H.E. vi. 34, 39, 41, vii. 10 ; Hieron. de Viris III. c. 54 ; Chrysost. in Gent. vol. i. p. 658 ; Tillemont, Notes sur VEmpereur Phittppe, in his Histoire des Empereurs, vol. iii. p. 494.) [W. R.]


PHILIPPUS II., M. JU'LIUS, son of the

foregoing, was a boy of seven at the accession (a. d. 244) of his father, by whom he was forth­with proclaimed Caesar, and three years afterwards (247) chosen consul, being at the same time ad­mitted to share the purple with the title of Augus­tus. His second consulship (248) corresponds with the celebration of the secular solemnities, and in the autumn of 249 he was slain, according to Zo-simus, at the battle of Verona, or murdered, accord­ing to Victor, at Rome by the praetorians, when intelligence arrived of the defeat and death of the emperor. Nothing has been recorded with regard to this youth, who perished at the age of twelve, except that he was of a singularly serious and stern temperament, so that from early childhood he could never be induced to smile, and on perceiving his father indulging in hearty merriment, called forth by some buffoonery at the games, he turned away his head with a marked expression of disgust.

His names and titles were the same with those of the elder Philip, with the addition of Severus, found upon some Pamphylian coins, and derived, it would seem, from his mother Otacilia Severa. The appellation C. Julius Saturninus, assigned to him by Victor, rests upon no other authority > und is not confirmed by medals or inscriptions. (Aur. Vict. de Caes. xxviii. Epit. xxviii.; Zosim. i. 22.)


[W. K]


PHILIPPUS I. (*fAHnros), king of mace­ donia, son of Argaeus, was the sixth king, if we follow the lists of Dexippus and Eusebius, but the third, according to Herodotus and Thucydides, who, not reckoning caranus and his two immediate suc­ cessors (Coenus and Thurimas or Turimmas), look upon Perdiccas I. as the founder of the monarchy. Eusebius assigns to Philip I. a reign of 38 years, Dexippus one of 35. Neither statement appears to rest on any positive testimony ; and Justin tells us that his death was an untimely one. He left a son, named Aeropus, who succeeded him. (Herod, viii. 137—139; Thuc. ii. 100; Just. vii. 2; Glint. F.H. vol. ii. p. 221.) [K E.]

PHILIPPUS II. (Sfonnros), the 18th king of macedonia, if we count from Caranus, was the youngest son of Amyntas II. and Eurydice, and was born in b. c. 382. According to one ac­count, which Suidas mentions (s. v. Kapccz/os), but for which there is no foundation, he and his two elder brothers, Alexander II. and Perdiccas III., were supposititious children, imposed by Eurydice on Amyntas. The fact of Philip's early residence at Thebes is too well supported to admit of doubt, though the circumstances which led to his being placed there are differently related. In Diodorus (xvi. 2), we read that Amyntas, being overcome in war by the Illyrians, delivered Philip to them as a hostage for the payment of some stipulated tribute, and that by them he was sent to Thebes, where he sojourned in the house of the father of Epaminondas, and was educated with the latter in the Pythagorean discipline. The same author however, tells us, in another passage (xv. 67), that he was one of those whom Pelopidas brought away with him as hostages for the continuance of tranquillity in Macedonia, when he had gone thither to mediate between Alexander II. and Ptolemy of Alorus, in b. c. 368 ; and with this statement Plutarch agrees (Pelop. 26) ; while Justin says (vii. 5), that Alexander, Philip's bro­ther, gave him as a hostage, first to the Illyrians, and again a second time to the Thebans. Of these accounts, the last-mentioned looks like an awk­ward attempt to combine conflicting stories ; while none of them are easily reconcileable with the statement of Aeschines (de Fals. Leg. pp. 31, 32 ; comp. Nep. Iph. 3), that, shortly after the death of Alexander II., Philip was in Macedonia, and, together with his elder brother Perdiccas, was presented by Eurydice to Iphicrates, in order to move his pity and obtain his protection against the pretender Pausanias. On the whole, the sup­position of Thirhvall is far from improbable (Greece, vol. v. p. 163), viz. that when Pelopidas, subse­quently to the visit of Iphicrates to Macedonia, marched a second time into the country, and com­pelled Ptolemy of Alorus to enter into an engage­ment to keep the throne for the younger sons of Amyntas, he carried Philip back with him to Thebes, as thinking him hardly safe with his mother and her paramour. As for that part of the account of Diodorus, which represents Philip as pursuing his studies in company with Epami­nondas, it is sufficiently refuted by chronology (see Wesseling, ad Diod. xvi. 2) ; nor \vould it seem that his attention at Thebes was directed to spe­culative philosophy so much as to those more practical points, the knowledge of which he after­wards found so useful for his purposes,—military tactics, the language and politics of Greece, and


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