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271

PHILIPPUS.

. fatigue while accompanying the king in pursuit of the enemy, during the campaigns in India. (Justin. xv. 3.)

13. A Macedonian officer, who had served under Alexander throughout his campaigns (probably therefore identical with some one of the preceding), and who in consequence as a man of age and expe­rience was one of the counsellors selected by Anti-gonus to control and assist his son Demetrius dur­ing his first campaign, b.c. 314. (Diod. xix. 69.) He is perhaps the same person who is again men­tioned in b. c. 302, as holding the citadel of Sardis for Antigonus, when the rest of the city was be­trayed by Phoenix into the hands of Prepelaus, the general of Cassander. (Id. xx. 107.)

14. A Macedonian who commanded the right vving of the army of Eumenes in the battle at Ga-damarta, b.c. 316. (Diod. xix. 40.) He is pro­bably identical with some one of those above enu­merated, but with which it is impossible to say.

.15. Son of Antipater, the regent of Macedonia, and brother of Cassander, by whom he was sent in b.c. 313, with an army to invade Aetolia. But on his arrival in Acarnania the news that Aeacides, king of Epeirus, had recovered possession of his throne, induced him to turn his arms against that monarch, whom he defeated in a pitched battle. Aeacides with the remnant of his forces having afterwards joined the Aetolians, a second action ensued, in which Philip was again victorious, and Aeacides himself fell in the battle. The Aetolians hereupon abandoned the open country, and took refuge in their mountain fastnesses. (Diod. xix. 74.) According to Justin (xii. 14) Philip had partici­pated with his two brothers, Cassander and lollas, in the conspiracy for the murder of Alexander.

16. Father of Antigonus, king of Asia. (Arr. Anal. i. 29. § 5 ; Justin. xiii. 4. See No. 2.)

17. Son of Antigonus, king of Asia, was sent by his father in b.c. 310, at the head of an army, to oppose the revolt of his general Phoenix, and to recover possession of the towns on the Hellespont held by the latter. (Diod. xx. 19.) He died in b c. 306, just as Antigonus was setting out for his expedition against Egypt. (Id. xx. 73, where he is called Phoenix, though it appears certain that Antigonus had only two sons, Demetrius and Philip. See Droysen, Hellenism, vol. i. p. 465, note.)

18. A son of Lysimachus, king of Thrace, who was put to death together with his elder brother Lysimachus, by the usurper Ptolemy Ceraunus, b. c. 281. (Justin. xxiv. 3.) [lysimachus, Vol. II. p. 867, a.]

19. An officer who held the citadel of Sicyon for Ptolemy, king of Egypt, but surrendered it by capitulation to Demetrius Poliorcetes, b. c. 303. (Diod. xx. 102.)

20. An Epeirot, who took a leading part in negotiating the treaty of peace concluded between Philip V., king of Macedonia, and the Roman general P. Sempronius Tuditanus at Phoenice, in Epeirus, b.c. 205. (Liv. xxix. 12.)

21. A Macedonian officer, who commanded the garrison of Cassandreia when that place was be­sieged by the Roman praetor C. Marcius Figulus, together with Eumenes, king of Perganras, in the second Macedonian war, b. c. 169. The Romans succeeded by mining in opening an entrance through the walk ; but before they could take advantage of it, Philip by a sudden sally threw their troops into confusion, and made a great slaughter of them.

PHILIPPUS.

This disaster caused the praetor to turn the siege into a blockade ; and the arrival of ten Macedonian ships, which made their way into the town with a strong reinforcement of troops, soon after compelled him to abandon the enterprize altogether. (Liv. xliv. 11,12.)

22. A Macedonian, sent as ambassador by Per­seus to the Rhodians, shortly before the commence­ment of the second Macedonian war, to try to induce them to remain neutral during the impend­ing contest. (Polyb. xxvii. 4.)

23. An Achaean, who, as belonging to the party favourable to the Romans, was one of those selected for the embassy of congratulation after the defeat of Perseus, b. c. 168. (Polyb. xxx. 10.)

24. Son of Alexander of Megalopolis. His father's pretended descent from Alexander the Great appears to have filled him with the most puerile schemes of ambition. On the marriage of his sister Apama with Amynander, king of Atha-mania, Philip accompanied her, and contrived to obtain great influence over the mind of Amynander, who gave him the government of Zacynthus, and allowed him to direct in great measure the admi­nistration of affairs. When Antiochus came into Greece (b. c. 192) he gained over Philip to his interests by pretending to regard him as the right­ful heir to the Macedonian throne, and even holding out to him hopes of establishing him upon it; by which means he obtained the adherence of Amynan­der also. Philip was afterwards chosen by Antiochus for the duty of burying the bones of the Macedo­nians and Greeks slain at Cynoscephalae, a measure by which he vainly hoped to conciliate popularity. He was next appointed, to command the garrison at Pellinaeum, but was soon compelled to surrender to the Romans, by whom he was sent a prisoner to Rome. When first taken captive he accidentally met Philip, the king of Macedonia, who in derision greeted him with the royal title. (Liv. xxxv. 47, xxxvi. 8, 13, 14, 31 ; Appian. Syr. 13, 17.)

25. A brother of Perseus, king of Macedonia, apparently a son of Philip by a subsequent mar­riage, as he was so much younger than his brother, that the latter adopted him as his son, and appears to have continued to regard him as the heir to his throne even after the birth of his own son Alexan­der. Thus we find him holding the post of honour next to the king on occasions of state ; and after the fatal battle of Pydna he was the constant com­panion of Perseus during his flight and the period of his refuge at Samothrace, and surrendered toge­ther with him to the Roman praetor Cn. Octavius. He was led in triumph before the car of Aemilius Paulus, B. c. 167, and afterwards consigned to captivitjr at Alba, where he survived his adopted father but a short time. (Liv. xlii. 52, xliv. 45, xlv. 6; Plut. Aemil. 33, 37; Zonar. ix. 24.) Ac­cording to Poly bins (Fr. Vat. xxxvii. p. 447) he was only eighteen years old at the time of his death.

26. A friend and officer of Antiochus the Great, who held the office of commander of the elephants (inagister elepliantorum, a title of high rank at the court of Syria) under that monarch ; in which post we find him mentioned both at the battle of Ra-phia, between Antiochus and Ptolemy Philopator, b. c. 217 (Polyb. v. 82), and again at the battle of Magnesia against the Romans, b. c. 190. (Liv. xxxvii. 41 ; Appian. Syr. 33.) As he is said by Polybius to have been brought up with Antiochus

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