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PHILIPPUS.

of the New Comedy did not abstain from mytho­ logical subjects. To the above list should perhaps be added the Tpiofioi f) 'PcoTroTretfATjs. The Ko6opvoi of Philonides, and the TXavviov of Eubulus or Phi- lippus, are erroneously ascribed to Philippides. The latter is only one of several instances in which the names of Philippides and Philippus are confounded (see Meineke, Hist. Grit. pp. 341, 342, 343). Some of the ancient critics charge Philippides with infringing upon the purity of the Attic dialect (Phryn. Ed. p. 365 ; Pollux, ix. 30), and Meineke produces several words from his fragments as ex­ amples. (Fabric. BibL Graec. vol. ii.'pp. 479, 480 ; Meineke, Frag. Com. Graec. vol. i. pp. 470—475, vol. iv. pp. 467—478, 833, 834 ; Bernhardy, Gesch. d. Griech. Lit. vol. ii. p. 1017.) [P. S.]

PHILIPPUS (^ajttttos), minor historical per­sonages. 1. A citizen of Crotona. son of Butacides. Having married the daughter of Telys, king of the rival state of Sybaris, and being obliged in conse­quence to leave his country, he sailed away to Cyrene ; and, when Dorieus, the Spartan prince, son of Anaxandrides, set forth from the Libyan coast, on his Sicilian expedition, Philippus accom­panied him with a galley, equipped and manned at his own expence, and was slain in Sicily in a battle with the Carthaginians and Egestaeans. He was the finest man of his time, and a conqueror at Olympia ; by virtue of which qualifications the Egestaeans worshipped him after his death as a hero. (Herod, v. 47 ; comp. above, Vol. I. p. 1066, b.)

2. Son of Alexander I. of Macedonia, and brother of Perdiccas II., against whom he rebelled in conjunction with Derdas. The rebels were aided by the Athenians, in consequence of which Per­diccas instigated Potidaea, as well as the Chalci-dians and Bottiaeans, to revolt from Athens. When the Athenian generals arrived, Philip acted with them in the campaign of b. c. 432. He seems to have died before b. c. 429, in which year we find his son Amyntas contesting the throne with Perdiccas, and aided in his attempt by Sitalces, king of the Odrysian Thracians. (Thuc. i. 57, &c. ii. 95, 100.) [See above, Vol. I. p. 154, b. ; and comp. Glint. F. H. vol. ii. p. 225, where a different account is given of Amyntas.]

3. A Lacedaemonian, was sent by the Pelopon-nesians to Aspendus, in b. c. 411, with two gallies, to take charge of the Phoenician fleet, which Tis-saphernes had promised them. But Philippus sent notice from Aspendus to Mindarus, the Spartan admiral, that no confidence was to be placed in Tis-saphernes ; and the Peloponnesian fleet accordingly quitted Miletus and sailed to the Hellespont, whither Pharnabazus had invited them. (Thuc. viii. 87, 99.)

4. A Theban, was one of the members of the oligarchical government established at Thebes after the seizure of the Cadmeia by Phoebidas in b. c. 382. In b.c. 379, on the night when Pelopidas and his fellow-exiles carried their enterprise for the overthrow of the tyrants into effect, Philippus and Archias were slain by the conspirators at a banque-t at the house of Phyllidas. (Xen. Hell. v. 4. §§ 2, &c.; comp. Plut. Pel. 9, &c. de Gen. Soc. 24, 26, 29, 32.) [E. E.]

5. Son of Amyntas, a Macedonian officer in the service of Alexander the Great, who commanded one of the divisions of the phalanx at the battle of the Gramcus. ( Arr. Anab. i. 14. § 3.) His name does

PHILIPPUS.

not subsequently appear in the campaigns of Alex­ander, at least so that it can be distinctly identified ; but so many officers in the army bore the name of Philip that it is frequently impossible to say who is the particular person spoken of. Droysen con­jectures (Hellenism, vol. i. p. 418. not.) that it is this Philip who was the father of Magas (Paus. i. 7. § 1), but there is certainly no proof of this, and the expression of Pausanias, that the latter was a man of ordinary condition and ignoble birth, is unfavourable to this supposition.

6. Son of Machatas, an officer in the service of Alexander the Great, who was appointed by him in b. c. 327 satrap of India, including the provinces westward of the Hydaspes. (Arr. Anab. v. 8. § 5.) After the conquest of the Malli and Oxy-dracae, these tribes also were added to his govern­ment. (Id. vi. 14. § 7.) But after the departure of Alexander from India, Philip was assassinated by a conspiracy formed among the mercenary troops under his command, b.c. 326. (Id. vi. 27. § 3 ; Curt. x. i. § 20.)

Droysen considers this Philip to have been the father of Antigonus, the king of Asia. (Hel­lenism, vol. i. p. 43. not.) It is certain at least that they were both of the race of the princes of Elymiotis.

7. Son of Menelaus, a Macedonian officer who held the command of the Thessalian cavalry, and that of the other Greek auxiliaries in the service of Alexander. We find him mentioned as holding this post, and rendering important services both at the battles of the Granicus and Arbela ; and although the greater part of the Thessalian horse were suf­fered to return to Greece, he continued to accom­pany Alexander with the remainder, and is again mentioned during the advance into Bactria. (Arr. Anab. i. 15. § 4, iii. 11. § 15, 25. § 6 j Curt. iv. 13. § 29, vi. 6. § 35.)

8. Son of Balacrus, an officer in the service of Alexander who commanded one taxis or division of the phalanx at the battle of Arbela. (Diod. xvii. 57.) This is the only time his patronymic is mentioned ; but there can be little doubt that he is the same person who held a similar command at the passage of the Granicus, three years before. (Arr. Anab. i. 14. § 5.) It is also not improbable that he is the same with the following.

9. Satrap of Sogdiana, to which government he was first appointed by Alexander himself in b. c. 327. He retained his post, as did most of the satraps of the more remote provinces, in the arrange­ments which followed the death of the king (b. c. 323) ; but in the subsequent partition at Tripara-deisus, b. c. 321, he was assigned the government of Parthia instead. (Dexipp. ap. Phot. p. 64, b. ; Arrian. ib. p. 71. b. ; Diod. xviii. 3, 39.) Here he remained until 318, when Python, who was then seeking to establish his power over all the provinces of the East, made himself master of Parthia, and put Philip to death. (Diod. xix. 14.)

10. A Macedonian officer, who was left by Alex­ander the Great in command of the garrison at Peucelaotis, near the Indus. (Arr. Anab. iv. 28. §10.)

11. Qne of the friends of Alexander the Great, who was sent by him to consult the oracle of Ammon concerning the payment of divine honours to Hephaestion. (Diod. xvii. 115.)

12. A brother of Lysimachus (afterwards king of Thrace) in the service of Alexander, who died of

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