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a dissertation by F. F. Brisken, entitled PMinus et HahnemannuS) sen Veteris Sectae. Jttmpiricae cum Hodierna Secla Homoeopathica Comparatio^ Berol. 1834, 8vo. [W. A.G.]
PHILIPPICUS, or more correctly PHILE'PI-CUS ($iAt7T7n/«fc or 4>iAe7n«:os), emperor of Constantinople from December, a. d. 711, to the fourth of June, 713. The account of his accession to the throne is related in the life of the emperor Justinian II. Rhinotmetus. His original name was Bardanes; he was the son of Nicephorus Patricius ; and he had distinguished himself as a general during the reigns of Justinian and his predecessors ; he was sent into exile by Tiberius Absimarus, on the charge of aspiring to the crown. After having been proclaimed by the inhabitants of Cherson and by the army, with which he was commanded to exterminate those people by the emperor Justinian II., he assumed the name of Philippicns, or, as extant coins of him have it, Filepicus ; Theophanes, however, calls him Philippicus previous to his accession. After the assassination of the tyrant Justinian, Philippicus ruled without opposition, though not without creating much dissatisfaction through his dissolute course of life, and his unwise policy in religious matters. Belonging to the sect of the Monothelists, he deposed the orthodox patriarch Cyrus, and put the heretic John in his stead. The whole East soon embraced, or at least tended towards, Monothelism ; the emperor brought about the abolition of the canons of the sixth council; and the names of the patriarchs, Sergius and Honorius, who had been anathematized by that council, were, on his order, inserted in the sacred diptychs. Philippicus had scarcely arrived in his capital when Terbilis, king of Bulgaria, made his sudden appearance under its walls, burned the suburbs, and retired with many captives and an immense booty.
During this time the Arabs took and burnt Amasia (71*2), and in the following year (713) Antioch in Pisidia fell into their hands. The emperor did nothing to prevent these or further disasters ; a plot, headed by the patricians Georgius, surnamed Boraphus, and Theodore Myacius, was entered into to deprive him of his throne ; and the fatal day arrived without Philippicus being in the least prepared for it. On the 3rd of June, 713, he celebrated the anniversary of his death ; splendid entertainments were given in the hippodrome, the emperor with a brilliant cavalcade paraded through the streets of Constantinople, and when the evening approached, the prince sat down with his courtiers to a sumptuous banquet. According to his habit, Philippicus took such copious libations that his attendants were obliged to put him to bed in a senseless state. On a given signal, one of the conspirators, Rufus, entered the bed-room, and, with the assistance of his friends, carried the drunken prince off to a lonely place, where he was deprived of his eyesight. A general tumult ensued, and the people, disregarding the pretensions of the conspirators, proclaimed one of their own favourites, Anastasius ll. Philippicus ended his life in obscurity, but we have no particulars referring to the time of his death. (Theophan. pp. 311, 316— 321 ; Niceph. Const, p. 141, &c. ed. Paris, 1616, 8vo.; Zonar. vol. ii. p. 96, &c. ed. Paris ; Cedrenus,
-p. 446, &c.; Paul. Diacon. de Gest. Longob. vi. 31
—33 ; Suid. s. v. &i\nr7riK6s ; Eckhel, Doctr. Num. vol. viii. pp. 229 230.) [W. P.] PHILI'PPlPfiS (StAtTTTrfSifs), of Athens, the
son of Philocles, is mentioned as one of the six principal comic poets of the New Comedy by the grammarians (Proleg. ad AristopJi. p. 30 ; Tzetz. Proleg. ad Lycoplir. p. 257, with the emendation of $i\iiriri§T]s for <&i \KTTitov, see philistion). According to Suidas, he flourished in the lllth Olympiad, or b. c. 335, a date which would throw him back rather into the period of the Middle Comedy. There are, however, several indications in the fragments of his plays that he flourished under the successors of Alexander ; such as, first, his attacks on Stratocles, the flatterer of Demetrius and Anti-gonus, which would place him between 01. 118 and 122 (Pint. Demetr. 12, 26, pp. 894, c. 900, f., Amator. p. 730, f.), and more particularly his ridicule of the honours which were paid to Demetrius through the influence of Stratocles, in e. c. 30 1 (Clinton, F. H. sub ann.) ; again, his friendship with king Lysimachus, who was induced by him to confer various favours on the Athenians, and who assumed the royal title in 01. 118. 2, b.c. 306 (Pint. Demetr. 12) ; and the statements of Plutarch (I. c.) and Diodorus (xx. 110), that he ridiculed the Eleusinian mysteries, into which he had been initiated in the archonship of Nicocles, b. c. 302. It is true, as Clinton remarks (F. H. vol. ii. introd. p. xlv), that these indications may be reconciled with the possibility of his having flourished at the date given by Suidas ; but a sounder criticism requires us to alter that date to suit these indications, which may easily be done, as Meineke proposes, by changing piaf, 111, into piS', 114, the latter Olympiad corresponding to b. c. 323 (Meineke, Menand. et P/iilem. Reliq. p. 44, Hist. Crit. Com. Graec. p. 471 ; in the latter passage Meineke explains that the emendation of Suidas proposed by him in the former, p/f5', was a misprint for ptd'). It is a confirmation of this date, that in the list above referred to of the six chief poets of the New Comedy, Philippides comes, not first, but after Philemon, Menander, and Diphilus : for if the list had been in order of merit, and not of time, Menander would have stood first. The mistake of Suidas may be explained by his confounding Philippides, the comic poet, with the demagogue Philippides, against whom Hyperides composed an oration, and who is ridiculed for his leanness by Alexis, Aristo-phon, and other poets of the Middle Comedy ; an error into which other writers also have fallen, and which Clinton (I. c.) has satisfactorily refuted.
Philippides seems to have deserved the rank assigned to him, as one of the best poets of the New-Comedy. He attacked the luxury and corruptions of his age, defended the privileges of his art, and made use of personal satire with a spirit approaching to that of the Old Comedy (see Meineke, Hist. Crit. pp. 437, 47 1 ). Plutarch eulogizes him highly (Demetr. /. c-). His death is said to have been caused by excessive joy at an unexpected victory (Gell. iii. 15) : similar tales are told of the deaths of other poets, as for example, Sophocles, Alexis, and Philemon. It appears, from the passage of Gellius just quoted, that Philippides lived to an advanced age.
The number of his dramas is stated by Suidas at forty-five. There are fifteen titles extant, namely : — >A5owa£buo'cu, 'AjU^iapaos, 'Az/cwewtris, 'Apyvpiov AuAoi, Bao-aj/t£ojuei'77, AaKiaSai, Macr-s, 'OAwSia, Su/xTrAeouo-cu, or perhaps
In the 'A/j.(pidpaos we have one of those titles which show that the poeta