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On this page: Phileus – Philfnus – Philiadas – Philiades – Philidas



artist's name, supposes that these statues, which are of Pentelic marble, belong to the Attic school of sculpture, in the age of Hadrian. (Zoega's Leben, vol. ii. p. 366 ; Welcker, Kunstblatt, 1827, pp. 330, 331 ; R. Rochette, Lettre a M. Sckorn, pp. 380, 381.) [P.S.]

PHILEUS, an eminent Ionian architect, whose name is variously written in different passages of Vitruvius, which, however, almost undoubtedly refer to the same person. In one passage (vii. Praef. § 12) we are told that Phileos published a volume on the Ionic temple of Minerva at Priene ; then, just below, that Phiteus wrote concerning the Mausoleum, which was built by him and Satyrus ; in another passage (i. 1. § 12), he quotes from the commentaries of Pythius, whom he calls the archi­ tect of the temple of Minerva at Priene ; and, in a fourth passage (iv. 3. § 1), he mentions Pytheus as a writer on architecture. A comparison of these passages, especially taking into consideration the various readings, can leave no doubt that this Phileos, Phiteus, Pythius, or Pytheus, was one and the same person, although it is hardly possible to determine the right form of the name : most of the modern writers prefer the form Pytheus. From the passages taken together we learn that he was the architect of two of the most magnificent build­ ings erected in Asia Minor, at one of the best periods of the architecture of that country, the Mausoleum, which he built in conjunction with satyrus, and the temple of Athena Polias, at Priene ; and also that he was one of the chief writers on his art. The date of the erection of the Mausoleum was soon after 01. 106. 4, b.c. 35f, the year in which Mausolus died; that of the temple at Priene must have been about twenty years later, for we learn from an inscription that it was dedicated by Alexander {Ion. Antiq. vol. i. p. 12). This temple was, as its ruins still show, one of the most beautiful examples of the Ionic order. It was peripteral, and hexastyle, with propylaea, which have on their inner side, instead of Ionic pillars, pilasters, the capitals of which are decorated with gryphons in relief. {Ion. Antiq. vol. i. c. 2 ; Choi- seul-Gouffier, pi. 116 ; Mauch, die Griech. u. Rom. Bauordnungen, pi. 40, 41 ; R. Rochette, 'Lettre a M. Schorn, pp. 381—383.) [P. S.]

PHILIADAS (*/Ai«Sas), of Megara, an epi­ grammatic poet, who is only known by his epitaph on the Thespians who fell at Thermopylae, which is preserved by Stephanus Byzantinus (s. v. &eor- Treia), by Eustathius (ad 11. ii. p. 201. 40), and in the Greek Anthology. (Brunck, Anal. vol. iii. p. 329 ; Jacobs, Anth. Graec. vol. i. p. 80, xiii, p. 934.) [P. S.]

PHILIADES (QiXidS-ns), a Messenian father of Neon and Thrasylochus, the partizans of Philip of Macedon [neon]. It is probable that Philiades himself was attached to the same party, as he is mentioned by Demosthenes in terms of contempt and aversion. (Dem. de Cor. p. 324, de Foed. c. Alex. p. 212 ; Polyb. xvii. 14.) [E. H. B.]

PHILIDAS ($(A&as), an Aetolian, who was sent by Dorimachus, with a force of 600 men, to the assistance of the Eleans during the Social War, b. g. 218. He advanced into Triphylia, but was unable to make head against Philip, who drove him in succession out of the fortresses of Lepreum and Samicum, and ultimately compelled him to evacuate the whole of Triphylia. (folyb. iv. 77— 80.) [E. H. B.]



the name of many Greek females, as, for instance, of the female dancer of Larissa in Thessaly, who was the mother of Arrhidaeus by Philip, the father of Alexander the Great. (Athen. xiii. p. 557, e ; Phot. Bibl. p. 64. 23.) It was also the name of the mother of the poet Theocritus (Ep. 3).

PHILFNUS (*/\?*>s). 1. A Greek of Agri-gentum, accompanied Hannibal in his campaigns against Rome, and wrote a history of the Punic wars, in which he exhibited, says Polybius, as much partiality towards Carthage, as Fabius did towards Rome. His hatred against Rome may have been excited, as Niebuhr has remarked (Hist, of Rome, vol. iii. p. 573), by the unfortu­nate fate of his native town, which was stormed by the Romans in the first Punic war. How far the history of Philinus came down is uncertain ; he is usually called by most modern writers the his­torian of the first Punic war ; but we have the ex­press testimony of Cornelius Nepos (Annib. 13) that he also gave an account of the campaigns of Hannibal ; and we may therefore conclude that his work contained the history of the second as well as of the first Punic war. (Corn. Nep. /. c. ; Polyb. i. 14, iii. 26 ; Diod. xxiii. 8, xxiv. 2, 3.) To this Philinus Miiller (Fragm. Hist. Graec. p. xlviii.) assigns a work Ilepl Oot^t/cTjs, which Suidas (s. v. 3>iXicrKos $ &i\iaros) erroneously ascribes to Philistus.

2. An Attic orator, a contemporary of Demos­thenes and Lycurgus. He is mentioned by De­mosthenes in his oration against Meidias (p. 566), who calls him the son of Nicostratus, and says that he was trierarch with him. Harpocration mentions three orations of Philinus. 1. TIpos AiVx^Aov Kal ~2o(f>oK\€Ovs Kal Evpnridov tiKovas, which was against a proposition of Lycurgus that statues should be erected to those poets (s. v. $ea--pik&). 2. KarcJ Awpofleou, which was ascribed likewise to Hyperides (s. v. e-rrl K^pprjs). 3. Kpo-Kc*>pi5(£j> SiaSi/cacria irpos Kotp&wSas, which was ascribed by others to Lycurgus (s. v. Koipwi//8cu ; comp. Athen. x. p. 425, b ; Bekker, Anecd. Graec. vol. i. p. 273. 5). An ancient grammarian, quoted by Clemens Alexandrinus (Strom. vi. p. 748), says that Philinus borrowed from Demos­thenes. (Ruhnken, Historia Oratorum Graecorum, p. 75, &c. ; Westermann, Gescliiclite der Griechis-clien Beredtsamkeiti § 54, n. 29.)

PHILFNUS (3>/AiVos), a Greek physician, born in the island of Cos, the reputed founder of the sect of the Empirici (Cramer's Anecd. Graeca Paris. vol. i. p. 395), of whose characteristic doctrines a short account is given in the Diet, of Antiq. s. v. Empirici. He was a pupil of Herophilus, a con­temporary of Baccheius [baccheius], and a pre­decessor of Serapion, and therefore probably lived in the third centiiry b. c. (Pseudo-Galen, Introd. c. 4, vol. xiv. p. 683). He wrote a work on part of the Hippocratic collection directed against Bac­cheius (Erot. Lex. Hippocr. in v. "A/xgr?*/), and also one on botany (Athen. xv. pp. 681, 682), neither of which is now extant. It is perhaps this latter work that is quoted by Athenaeus (xv. 28. pp. 681, 682), Pliny (H. N. xx. 91, and Index to books xx. and xxi.), and Andro-machus (ap. Galen, De Compos. Medicam. sec. Loc, vii. 6, De Compos. Medicam. sec. Gen. v. 13, vol. xiii. pp. 113, 842). A parallel has been drawn between Philinus and the late Dr. Hahnemann in

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