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Philotlieus, and sometimes to Theophilus Proto- spatharius [theophilus protosp.], though it should be mentioned that it differs almost entirely from a short Greek work on the same subject, attri buted to the last-named author, and lately pub lished by Dr. Ermerins. It is not of much value, and is taken chiefly from Galen's works on the same subject. The author is one of those ancient writers who say the word dprrjpia is derived irapci, to tov aepa Tfjpelv (c. 4), a derivation, which, in spite of its obvious and barbarous absurdity, con tinues to be given in many (or perhaps most) medical works, even in the present day (see note to the Oxford edition of Theophilus, De Corp. Hum. Fabr. pp. 296, 297). Philaretus is several times quoted by Rhazes, who attributes to him a work which he calls Liber trium Tractatuum^ by which (as Haller conjectures) he may possibly mean the little works, De Urinis, De Eoccrementis, and De Pulsibus. [theophilus protosp.] The Greek text has never been published, but there are two Latin translations: the former of these appeared in the old collection of medical works called Articella ; the latter by Albanus Torinus was published in 1535, 8vo. Argent., and in the second volume of H. Stephani Medicae Artis Principes, Paris, fol. 1567. (Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. xii. p. 647, ed. vet.; Haller, Bibl. Medic. Pract* vol. i. p. 307 ; Choulant, Handb. der Bucherkunde fur die Aeltere Medicin; Ermerins, Preface to his Anecd. Med. Graeca.) [W.A. G.]
PHILARGYRILTS JUNIUS, or PHILAR-GYRUS, or JUNILIUS FLAGRIUS, for the name appears in different MSS. under these varying forms, was an early commentator upon Virgil. His observations, which are confined to the Bucolics and Georgics, are less elaborate than those of Servius, and have descended to us in a very imperfect and mutilated condition, but possess considerable interest, in consequence of containing a number of quotations from ancient writers whose works have perished. The period when he flourished is altogether uncertain, for it cannot be proved that the Valentinianus whom he addresses is Valentinianus Augustus.
These scholia were first published by Fulvius Ursinus, in his remarks on Cato, Varro, and Colu- mella, 8vo, Rom. 1587, having been discovered by him in a very ancient MS. of a fragment of Servius, and also on the margin of a MS. of Virgil, where they had been noted down by Angelus Politianus. They have been frequently reprinted, and will be found subjoined to the text of Virgil, in the editions of Masvicius and Burmann. (Fabric. Bibl. Lat. i. 12. § 5 ; Burmann, Praef. ad Virg. ; Heyne, de Antiquis VirgUii Interpretibus, subjoined to his notices De Virgilii Editionibus ; Suringar, Historia Critica Scholiast. Latt.; Bahr, Geschichte der Rom. Litterat. § 76, 3rd edit.) [W. R.]
PHILE or PHILES, MA'NUEL (Mavovrj\ 6 4>iA7js), a Byzantine poet, and a native of Ephesus, was born about A. d. 1275, and died about 1340. We know little of his life. He is called a poet, because he either extracted the works of poets, or wrote compositions of his own, in " versus poli-tici" (ffTLXoi ta/xgiKoi), the worst sort of poetry, and the most unmelodious kind of verses that were ever tried by poets. The following is a list of his works: — 1. De Animalium Proprietate (5r •)(<)>. laju&Kol Trepi £cocoj/ tStoV^Tos), chiefly extracted from Aelian, and dedicated to the emperor
Michael Palaeologus. Editions: The Greek text by Arsenius, archbishop of Monembesia, Venice, 1530, 8vo, dedicated to Charles V., emperor of Germany; the same with a Latin version by Gre-gorius Bersemannus, dedicated to Augustus, elector of Saxony, in Joachimi Camerarii " Auctua-rius," Leipzig, ]574, 4to: the editor made many strange alterations ; by the elegant scholar, John Cornelius de Paw, Utrecht, 1739, 4to, ex Cod. Bodl.? with the notes and the translation of Bersemannus revised by the editor, and cum frag-mentis ineditis, among which Carmen Hepl Naim-Aou. 2. Carmina (varia) containing his other poetical productions, except the aforesaid Carmen de Animalium Proprietate^ edited by G. Werns-dorf,«and dedicated to Dr. Askew of London, and preceded by Carmen ignoti Poetae in S. Theodorum. Leipzig, 1768, 8vo. Contains: 1. Els tov /ca/co-Trafl?; novaxpv \w§ov, In Monaclium Leprosum ; 2. Els tov avToicpaTopa. /3a<nAea, In Augustum^ id est, Andronicum Seniorem; 3. De Plantis, viz. Els tov ffTaxyv (in Spicam), els tov fioTpvv (in Uvam), and els to pofiov (in Rosam}, as well as els Tr\v potav (in Malum Punicum) ; 4. In Cantacuze-num (Joannem), in the form of a dialogue, a sort of moral drama; 5. Epigrammata,• 6. In Angus-turn^ id est, Andronicum Seniorem; 7. Els tov eAe^avra, In ElepJiantem ; 8. Hepl o"ripoo~Ko\'rip6s, De Bombyce sive Verme Serico; 9. Epigrammata; 10. Eulogium (of the historian) Pachymerae; 11. EpitapMum in Phaerasem; 12. Some verses In Templum Evergetae. This is a very curious book upon which the editor has bestowed remarkable care ; each Carmen is preceded by a short explanatory introduction. ( Wernsdorf 's Preface to his edition ; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. viii. p. 617, &c.
There are other Byzantine writers of the name of Phile, though of little note. Eumolpus Phile wrote a Commentary on four orations of Gregorius Nazianzenus. Joannes Phile is said to have written tetrastichs on some psalms of David, and on other kindred subjects. Michael Phile, a priest who lived about 1124, is the author of an iambic epitaph on the empress Irene, and a short poem on Alexis and Joannes, the sons of Isaac Porphy- rogenitus. These poems are printed in the old edition of Fabricius' Bibl. Graec. ; but Harless did not think it worth while to reprint them in the new edition. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. viii. p. 618. Notes s, t, u, v.) [W. P.]
PHILEAS (*/Aeas). 1. A Greek geographer of Athens, whose time cannot be determined with certainty, but who probably belonged to the older period of Athenian literature. He is not only quoted by Dicaearchus (33) ; but that a still higher antiquity must be assigned to him, would appear from the position in which his name occurs in Avienus (Or. Mar. 42), who places him between Hellanicus and Scylax, and also from the words of Macrobius (Sat. v. 20), who calls him a vetus scriptor with reference to Ephorus. Phileas was the author of a Periplus, which is quoted several times by Stephanus Byzantinus and other iater writers, and which appears to have comprehended most of the coasts known at the time at which he lived. It was divided into two parts, one on Asia, and the other on Europe. From the fragments of it which have been preserved, we ^earn that it treated of the following countries among others : — of the Th'racian Bosporus (Suidas, . v. Bocriropos ; Schol. ad Soph. Aj. 870); of the