The Ancient Library

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On this page: Pherenfcus – Pheres – Pheretfma – Pheretiades – Pheron – Phersephone – Pherusa – Phfalus – Phfgalus – Phidias – Phidon – Phigalia – Phila



work of his entitled Ilapcuz/eVeis 5t5 eirco*/, which, however, does not belong to the Athenian. The other works spoken of by Suidas, Ilepl Ae'pou, Tlept ^Ityiyeveias, Hepl tgov Aiovvcrov eoprcoj', may have been written by the historian, but not a frag­ment of them has been preserved. His great work, which is frequently referred to by the Scho­liasts and Apollodorus, was a mythological history in ten books, which is quoted by various titles, in consequence of the diversified nature of its con­tents. It is sometimes called 'loroptcu, at other times AvrdxQoves, and sometimes 'ApxatoAf^icu; and from the numerous extracts which are made from it, we are enabled to make out pretty well the subject of each book. It began with a theogony, and then proceeded to give an account of the heroic age and of the great families of that time, with which the pride and religious feeling of the later Greeks so closely identified themselves. The fragments of Pherecydes have been collected by Sturtz, Pherecydis Fragmenta, Lips. 1824, 2nd ed.; and by Car. and Theod. Miiller in Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, p. xxxiv., &c., p. 70, &c.

PHERENFCUS (QepiviKos), of Heracleia, an epic poet of uncertain age, who treated of Meta­morphoses and similar fabulous tales. Athenaeus (iii. p. 78, b.) gives a statement from him respect­ing the origin of the fig-tree and other trees ; and Tzetzes (Chil. vii. 144) speaks of him as one of those who treated of the monstrous and fabulous forms of men, and quotes from him two lines re­specting the Hyperborei (comp. Schol. ad Find. 01. iii. 28.)

PHERES (*e>7s). 1. A son of Cretheus and Tyro, and brother of Aeson and Amythaon ; he was married to Periclymene, by Avhom he became the father of Admetus, Lycurgus, Eidomene, and Periapis. He was believed to have founded the town of Pherae in Thessaly. (Horn. Od. xi. 259 ; Apollod. i. 9. §§ 11,14, iii. 10. § 4, 13. § 8.)

2. A son of Jason and Medeia. (Apollod. i. 9. § 28 ; Pans. ii. 3. § 6.) [L. S.]

PHERETIADES (^p^nd^s), i.e. a son of Pheres (Horn. 77. ii. 763 ; comp. pheres). Eu­ripides (IpJi. Aul.214) applies the same patronymic to Eumelus, the grandson of Pheres. [L. S.]

PHERETFMA (fceper^), wife of Battus III., and mother of Arcesilaus III., successive kings of Gyrene,—" a Dorian woman," says Miiller, " trans­formed into an Oriental sultana." It was doubtless through her violent instigations that Arcesilaus made the attempt to recover the royal privileges, which his father had lost ; and, when he failed in this and was driven into exile, Pheretima fled to the court of Evelthon, king of Salamis in Cyprus, to whom she made persevering but fruitless applica­tions for an army to effect the restoration of her son. [evelthon.] Arcesilaus, however, recovered the throne with the help of auxiliaries from Samos, and in the cruel vengeance which he took on his enemies we seem to trace again the evil influence of his mother. On being obliged to flee a second time from his country, he took refuge with the Barcaeans, the greater part of whom were hostile to him, and joming with some Cyrenaean exiles, put him to death. Meanwhile, Pheretima had remained in Cjrene, administering the govern­ment ; but, when she heard of her son's mur­der, she fled into Egypt to Aryandes, the vice­roy of Dareius Hystaspis. and, representing that


the death of Arcesilaus had been the consequence of his submission to the Persians, she induced him to avenge it, On the capture of Barca by the Persian army, she caused those who had had the principal share in her son's murder to be impaled, and, not content with this cruel vengeance, she ordered the breasts of their wives to be cut oft'. The rest of her enemies in the city were enslaved, and the place was given up to the government of the Battiadae and their party. Pheretima then re­ turned to Egypt, where she soon after died of a painful and loathsome disease. (Herod, iv. 162, 165, 167, 200—202, 205 ; Polyaen. viii. 47 ; Suid. s. v. €i?Acu ; Thrige, Res Cyrenensium, §§ 39, &c.) [See above, Vol. I. p. 477.] [E. E.]

PHERON or PHEROS (*epcov, 4>epws), king of Egypt, and son of Sesostris. Pie was -visited with blindness, an hereditary complaint, though, according to the legend preserved in Herodotus, it was a punishment for his presumptuous impiety in throwing a spear into the waters of the Nile when it had overflowed the fields. By attending to the directions of an oracle he was cured, and the cir­ cumstances connected with the restoration of his sight strongly illustrate the general corruption of morals among the Egyptian women of the time. He dedicated an obelisk at Heliopolis, in gratitude for his recovery ; and Pliny tells us that this, to­ gether with another also made by him but broken in its removal, was to be seen at Rome in the Circus of Caligula and Nero at the foot of the Vatican hill. Pliny calls the Pheron of Herodotus Nuncoreus, or Nencoreus, a name corrupted, per­ haps, from Menophtheus. Diodorus gives him his father's name, Sesoosis. Pheron is of course the same word as Pharaoh. (Herod, ii. Ill ; Diod. i. 59 ; Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 11 ; comp. Tac. Ann. xiv. 14 ; Bunsen, Aegyptens Stelle in der Weltgeschiclite, vol. iii. Urkundenbuck, p. 86.) [E. E.]

PHERSEPHONE. [persephone.]

PHERUSA (*e>wra), one of the daughters of Nereus and Doris (Horn. //. xviii. 43 ; Hes. Theog. 248). One of the Horae was likewise called Pherusa. (Hygin. Fab. 183.) [L. S.]

PHFALUS (SfoAos), a son of Bucolion, and father of Simus, is said to have changed the name of the Arcadian town of Phigalia into Phialeia. (Pans. viii. 1. § 5, v. 39. § 2.) [L. S.]

PHIDIAS. [pheidias.j

PHIDON. [pheidon.]

PHIGALIA (*i7a\ia), a Dryad, from whom the town of Phigalia was believed to have derived its name. (Paus. viii. 39. § 2 ; Strab. viii. p. 348.) [L. S.]

PHFGALUS (SfyaAos), one of the sons of Lycaon in Arcadia, is said by Pausanias to have founded the town of Phigalia (viii. 3. § 1), though in another passage he is called an autochthon (viii. 39. § 2). [L. S.]

PHILA (<f»lAa). 1. A Macedonian princess, sister of Derdas the prince of Elymiotis, was one of the many wives of Philip of Macedon (Dicaearch. ap. Aflien. xiii. p. 557, c.).

2. Daughter of Antipater, the regent of Mace­donia, is celebated as one of the noblest and most virtuous women of the age in. which she lived. Her abilities and judgment were so conspicuous even at an early age, that we are told her father Antipater, was in the constant habit of consulting her in re­gard to political affairs. In b. c. 322, she was given by him in marriage to Craterus. as a reward

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