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PHARNACES.

nectanabis.] Whether the disastrous result of the expedition in question threw Pharnabazus into disgrace at court, we do not know. Hence­forth he disappears from history.

The character of Pharnabazus is eminently dis­tinguished by generosity and openness. Through­out a long career, the servant as he was of a corrupt and exacting court, and beset by un­scrupulous opponents, we still find him unstained by bad faith, if we except his breach of promise to Anaxibius, the very doubtful case of the murder of alcibiades, and his conduct above-mentioned to the Athenian ambassadors, in which he appears to have been hardly a free agent.

3. A Persian general, son of Artabazus [No. 4.], was joined with Autophradates in the command of the fleet after the death of Memnon, in b. c. 333. [autophradates.] They succeeded in reducing Mytilene,Tenedos, and Chios, and, having despatched some ships to Cos and Halicarnassus, they sailed with 100 of their fastest vessels to Siphnus. Here they were visited by Agis, king of Sparta, who came to ask for money and troops to support the anti-Macedonian party in the Peloponnesus. But just at this crisis intelligence arrived of Alexander's victory at Issus, and Phar­nabazus, fearing that the effect of it might be the revolt of Chios, sailed thither with 12 ships and 1500 mercenaries. He did not, however, prevent the islanders from putting down the Persian government, and he was himself taken prisoner ; but he escaped, and took refuge in Cos. (Arr. Anab. ii. 1, 2, 13, iii. 2 ; Curt. iii. 3? iv. 1,5.)

In b. c. 324, Artonis, the sister of Pharnabazus, was given in marriage to Eumenes by Alexander the Great; and in b.c. 321 we find Pharnabazus commanding a squadron of cavalry for Eumenes, in the battle in which he defeated Craterus and Neop- tolemus. (Arr. Anab. vii. 4 ; Plut. Eum. 7 ; Diod. xviii. 30—82.) [E. K]

PHARNACES (*apya/crjs). 1. The progenitor of the kings of Cappadocia, who is himself styled by Diodorus king of that country. He is said to have married Atossa, a sister of Cambyses, the father of Cvrus ; bv whom he had a son named

•/ ' tj

Gallus, who was the great-grandfather of Anaphas, one of the seven Persians who slew the Magi. (Diod. xxxi. Eocc. Phot. p. 517.) [anaphas]. But the whole genealogy is probably fictitious.

2. Father of Artabazus, who commanded the Parthians and Chorasmians in the expedition of Xerxes against Greece. [artabazus, No. 2.]

3. Son of Pharnabazus, appears to have been satrap of the provinces of Asia near the Helles­pont, as early as b.c. 430. (Time. ii. 67.) He is subsequently mentioned as assigning Adramyt-tium for a place of settlement to the Delians, who had been expelled by the Athenians from their native island, b. c. 422. (Id. v. 1 ; Diod. xii. 73.)

4. A Persian of high rank, and brother-in-law of Dareius Ccdomannus, who was killed at the battle of the Granicus, b. c. 334. (Arr. Anab. i. 16. § 5 ; Diod. xvii. 21.) [E. H. B.]

PHARNACES I. (Oapi/cfoajs), king of Pontus, was the son of Mithridates IV., whom he suc­ceeded on the throne. (Justin. xxxviii. 5, 6 ; Clinton, F. II. vol. iii. pp. 424, 425). The date of his accession cannot be fixed with certainty, but it is assigned conjecturally by Mr. Clinton to about b. c. 1.90. It is certain, at least, that he

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PHARNACES.

was on the throne before b. c. 183, in which year he succeeded in reducing the important city of Sinope, which had been long an object of ambition to the kings of Pontus. The Rhodians sent an embassy to Rome to complain of this aggression, but without effect. (Strab. xii. p. 545 ; Polyb. xxiv. 10 ; Liv. xl. 2.) About the same time Pharnaces became involved in disputes with his neighbour, Eumenes, king of Pergamus, which led to repeated embassies from both monarch s to Rome, as well as to partial hostilities. But in the spring of 181, without waiting for the return of his ambassadors, Pharnaces suddenly attacked both Eumenes and Ariarathes, and invaded Galatia with a large force. Eumenes opposed him at the head of an army : but hostilities were soon suspended by the arrival of the Roman deputies, appointed by the senate to inquire into the matters in dispute. Nego­ tiations were accordingly opened at Pergamus, but led to no result, the demands of Pharnaces being rejected by the Romans as unreasonable ; and the war was in consequence renewed. It continued, apparently with various interruptions, until the summer of b.c. 179, when Pharnaces, finding himself unable to cope with the combined forces of Eumenes and Ariarathes, was compelled to purchase peace by the cession of all his conquests in Galatia and Paphlagonia, with the exception of Sinope. (Polyb. xxv. 2,4,6, xxvi. 6 ; Liv. xl. 20 ; Diod. xxix. Exc. Vales, pp. 576, 577.) How long he continued to reign after this we know not; but it appears, from an incidental notice, that he was still on the throne in b.c. 170. (Polyb. xxvii. 15; Clinton, F. H. vol. iii. p. 426.) The impartial testimony of Polybius confirms the complaints of Eumenes and the Romans in regard to the arrogant and violent character of Pharnnces. [E. H. B.]

PHARNACES II. (*apm/o?s), king of Pontus, or more properly of the Bosporus, was the son of Mithridates the Great. According to Appian he was treated by his father with great distinction, and even designated as his successor, but we find no mention of him until the close of the life of Mithridates, after the latter had taken refuge from the arms of Pompey in the provinces north of the Euxine. But the schemes and preparations of the aged monarch for renewing the war with the Romans, and even carrying his arms into the heart of their empire, excited the alarm of Phar­naces, and he took advantage of the spirit of dis­content which existed among the assembled troops to conspire against the life of his father. His designs were discovered ; but he was supported by the favour of the army, who broke out into open mutiny, declared Pharnaces their king, and marched against the unhappy Mithridates, who, after several fruitless appeals to his son. was compelled to put an end to his own life, b.c. 63. (Appian. Mitlir. 110,111 ; Dion Cass. xxxvii. 12. For further details and authorities see mithri­dates.) In order to secure himself in the posses­sion of the throne which he had thus gained by par­ricide, Pharnaces hastened to send an embassy to

... ^ Pompey in Syria, with offers of submission, and

hostages for his fidelity, at the same time that he sent the body of Mithridates to Sinope to be' at the disposal of the Roman general. Pompey readil}r accepted his overtures, and granted him the kingdom of the Bosporus with the titles of friend and ally of the Roman people. JMithr. 113, 114; Dion Cass. xxxvii. 14.)

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