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240

PHARNABAZUS.

lorious, Phamabazus distinguished himself greatl}' by his zeal in behalf of his allies, urging his horse into the sea, and fighting as long as possible (Xen. Hell. i. 1. § 6 ; Diod. xiii. 46 ; Plut. Ah. 27). In b. c. 410 he ai$ed Mindarus in the capture of Cyzicus ; and in the battle which took place there soon after [mindarus], he not only gave valuable assistance to the Lacedaemonians with his forces, which were drawn up on the shore, but, when for­tune declared against his friends, he checked the pursuit of the victorious Athenians, and sheltered the fugitives in his camp. He also supplied each of them with arms and clothing and with pay for two months, setting them to guard the coasts of his province, and bidding them take courage, as there was plenty of timber in the king's country to build them another fleet. For this purpose he furnished them himself with money and materials, and ena­bled them to set about the construction of new ships at Antandrus. He then prepared to march to the help of Chalcedon, which seemed to be in danger from the Athenian fleet under Alcibiades ; but it is probable that the return of the latter to the Hellespont induced Pharnabazus to relinquish his intention and to remain where his presence ap­peared more necessary. It was about this time also that Hermocrates was indebted to his generosity for an unsolicited supply of money for the purpose of procuring ships and mercenaries to effect his re­turn to Syracuse [hermocrates]. In b. c. 409, Pharnabazus was defeated by Alcibiades and Thra-syllus near Abydus, and his province was ravaged by the Athenians (Xen. Hell. i. 1. §§ 14, &c., 31, 2. §§ 16, 17 ; Diod. xiii. 49—51, 63 ; Plut. Ale. 28.) In b.c. 408, the success of Alcibiades and his colleagues at Chalcedon against Pharnabazus arid the Spartan harmost, Hippocrates, who was slain in the battle, induced the satrap to accept terms of accommodation from the Athenians, and he further engaged to give a safe conduct to the ambassadors whom they purposed sending to Da-reius (Xen. Hell. i. 3. §§ 4—14 ; Diod. xiii. 66 ; Plut. Ale. 30, 31.) Early in the following spring he was journeying with the embassy in question on their way to the Persian court, when they were met by some Spartan envoys returning from Susa, where they had obtained from the king all they wished, and closely followed by Cyrus, who had been invested by his father with the government of the whole sea-coast of Asia Minor, and had been commissioned to aid the Lacedaemonians in the war. At the desire of the prince, Pharnabazus de­tained the Athenian ambassadors in custody, and three years elapsed before he could obtain leave to dismiss them (Xen. Hell. i. 4. §§ 1—7). Accord­ing to Diodorus (xiv. 22) it was he who gave information to Artaxerxes of the designs of Cyrus ; but the name of Pharnabazus may be a mistake of the author for Tissaphernes in this passage as it certainly is in other parts of his work, e. g. xiii. 36, 37, 38. When the Ten Thousand Greeks, in their retreat, had reached Calpe in Bithynia, Pharnabazus sent a body of cavalry to act against them, and these tooops made an inef­fectual attempt to check the progress of their march. (Xen. Anab. vi. 4. §§ 24, &c., 5. §§ 26—32.) On their arrival at Chrysopolis, on the eastern chore of the Bosporus, the satrap induced Anax-ibius by large promises, which he never redeemed, to withdraw them from his territory. [anaxibius.] The great authority with which Tissaphernes was

PHARNABAZUS.

invested by Artaxerxes in Asia Minor, as a reward for his services in the war with Cyrus, naturally excited the jealousy of Pharnabazus ; and the hostile feeling mutually entertained by the satraps was taken advantage of by Dercyllidas, when he passed over into Asia, in b.c. 399, to protect the Asiatic Greeks against the Persian power. [der­cyllidas,] In b. c. 396, the province of Pharna­bazus was invaded by Agesilaus, but the Lacedae­monian cavalry was defeated by that of the satrap. In 395, Tithraustes, who had been sent by Artaxerxes to put Tissaphernes to death, and to succeed him in his government, made a merit with Agesilaus of his predecessor's execution, and urged him to leave his province unmolested, and to attack that of Pharnabazus instead, a request to which Agesilaus acceded, on condition that Ti­thraustes should bear the expense of the march. Pharnabazus met the enemy, and gained a slight advantage over one of their marauding parties ; but a few days after this his camp was surprised and captured by Herippidas, and he was himself obliged to wander, a hunted fugitive, about his own terri­tory, until at length a conference was arranged between him and Agesilaus by a friend of both parties, Apollophanes of Cyzicus. Xenophon gives us a graphic account of the interview, in which the satrap upbraided the Lacedaemonians with the ill return they were making him for his services in the Peloponnesian war, and which ended with a promise from Agesilaus to withdraw from his territory, and to refrain from any future invasion of it, as long as there should be any one else for him to fight with. (Xen. Hell. iii. 4. §§ 12, &c., 25, &c., iv. J.§§1, 15—41 ; Plut. Ages. 9—12 ; Diod. xiv. 35, 79, 80 ; Just. vi. 1.) Meanwhile, as early apparently as b. c. 397, Phar­nabazus had connected himself with Conon, and we find them engaged together down to 393 in a series of successful operations under the sanction and with the assistance of the Persian king. [Co-non.] Pharnabazus, in the last-mentioned year, returned to Asia, and we have no further account of him for some time. His satrapy was invaded by Anaxibius in 389, but it does not appear whether he was himself residing there. (Xen. Hell. iv. 8. $ 33.) Two years after we find Ario-barzanes holding the government of Pharnabazus, who had gone up to court to marry the king's daughter. (Xen. Hell. v. 1. § 28, Ages. iii. 3 ; Plut. Art. 27.) So far we are on sure ground ; but it is very difficult to decide to what period we should refer the unsuccessful expedition of the Persians to Egypt under Pharnabazus, Abroconw?, and Tithraustes. Rehdantz, however, gives some very probable reasons for placing it in b. c. 392— 390. (Rehdantz, Vit. Iph., Chabr., Timotli. pp. 32, 239—242 ; comp. Isocr. Paneg. p. 69, d. ; Aristoph. Plut. 178 ; Just. vi. 6.) In b.c. 377, Pharnabazus, by his remonstrances with the Athe­nians, obtained the recall of Chabrias from the service of Acoris, king of Egypt, and also a pro­mise to send Iphicrates to co-operate with the Persian generals in the reduction of the rebellious province. The expedition, however, under Iphi­crates and Pharnabazus ultimately failed in b. c. 374, chiefly through the dilatory proceedings and the excessive caution of the latter, who excused himself to his colleague by the remark that while his words were in his own power, his actions were in that of the king. [chabrias ; ipkicrates ;

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