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On this page: Pharasmanes – Pharax – Pharis – Pharmaceia – Pharmacides – Pharnabazus

PHARAX.

son of Teaspes, commanded the Marians and Col- chians in the expedition of Xerxes against Greece. (Her. vii. 79.) He is mentioned again by Hero­ dotus (ix. 76), as having carried off by violence a woman of Cos, and made her his concubine. She was rescued by the Greeks after the battle of Plataea. [E. E.]

PHARASMANES (fcapacr/uawjs). 1. A king of the Scythian tribe of the Chorasmians, who pre­sented himself to Alexander the Great at Zariaspa, b. c. 328, with friendly offers, which were favour­ably received, and an alliance concluded between them. He promised the Macedonian king his as­sistance in conquering the tribes between the Cas­pian and the Euxine seas, when Alexander should have leisure for this expedition. (Arr. Anab. iv. 15.)

2. A son of Phrataphernes, the satrap of Parthia and Hyrcania. (Ibid. vi. 27.)

3. King of Iberia, contemporary with the em­ peror Tiberius. He assisted his brother Mithridates to establish himself on the throne of Armenia, a. d. 35 [AnsACiDAE, Vol. I. p. 362] ; and when the Parthian prince Orodes attempted to dispossess him of his newly-acquired kingdom, Pharasmanes assembled a large army, with which he totally de­ feated the Parthians in a pitched battle (Tac. Ann. vi. 32—35). At a later period (a. d. 53) he in­ stigated his son Rhadamistus, whose ambitious and aspiring character began to give him umbrage, to make war upon his uncle Mithridates, and sup­ ported him in his enterprize ; but when Rhada­ mistus was in his turn expelled by the Parthians, after a short reign (a. d. 55), and took refuge again in his father's dominions, the old king, in order to curry favour with the Romans, who had expressed their displeasure at the proceedings of Rhadamistus, put his son to death. (Id. ib. xii. 42—48, xiii. 6, 37.) [E. H. B.]

PHARAX, of Ephesus, a sculptor, whom Vi-truvius mentions as one of those artists, who failed to obtain renown, not for want of industry or skill, but of good fortune (iii. Praef. § 2). [P. S.]

PHARAX (*a/m|). 1. A Spartan, father of the Styphon, who was one of the prisoners taken by Demosthenes and Cleon at Sphacteria, in b. c. 425. (Thuc. iv. 38.)

2. One of the council of ten, appointed by the Spartans in b.c. 418, to control Agis. At the battle of Mantineia_in that year, he restrained the Lacedaemonians from pressing too much on the defeated enemy, and so running the risk of driving them to despair (Thuc. v. 63, &c. ; Diod. xii. 79 ; Wess. ad loc.). Diodorus speaks of him as having been high in dignity among his countrymen, and Pausanias (vi. 3) tells us that he was one of those to whom the Ephesians erected a statue in the temple of Artemis, after the close of the Pelopon-nesian war. He seems to have been the same person who was admiral in b. c. 397, and co-ope­rated with Dercyllidas in his invasion of Caria, where the private property of Tissaphernes lay [dercylljdas]. In b.c. 396 he laid siege, with 120 ships, to Caunus, where Conon was then stationed; but he was compelled to withdraw by the approach of a large force under Pharnabazus and Artaphernes, according to Diodorus, in whom however the latter name appears to be a mistake for Tissaphernes (Xen. Hell. iii. 2. §§ 12. &c.; Diod. xiv. 79 ; Paus. vi. 7 ; Thirl wall's Greece, vol. iv. p. 411). We learn from Theopompus (ap.

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PHARNABAZUS.

Athen. xii. p, 536, b. c.) that Pharax was much addicted to luxury, and was more like a Greek of Sicily in this respect than a Spartan.

3. A Spartan, was one of the ambassadors who were sent to negotiate an alliance with Athens against Thebes, in b. c. 369. (Xen. Hell. vi. 5. § 33.) [E. E.]

PHARIS (&dpis\ a san of Hermes and the Danaid Philodameia, by whom he became the father of Telegone. He is the reputed founder of the town of Pharae in Messenia. (Paus. iv. 30. § 2, vii. 22. § 3, where he is called Phares.) [L. S.]

PHARMACEIA (Qapjju&Keia), the nymph of a well with poisonous powers, near the river Ilissus, in Attica ; she is described as a playmate of Orei- thyia (Plat. Phaed. p. 229, c.; Timaeus, Lex. Plat, s. v.). [L. S.]

PHARMACIDES (4>ap^aKtSes), i.e. sorceresses or witches, is the name by which the Thebans de­ signated the divinities who delayed the birth of Heracles. (Paus. ix. 11. § 2.) [L. S.]

PHARNABAZUS (Qapvdeafrs). 1. Father of Pharnaces (Thuc. ii. 67).

2. Son of Pharnaces, succeeded his father as satrap of the Persian provinces near the Helles­pont, and it would seem from a passage in Thucy-dides (viii. 58) that his brothers were associated with him in the government (comp. Arnold and Goller ad Thuc. I. c. ; Krueger, ad Thuc. viii. 6). Early in b. c. 412, being anxious to support the Greek cities of his satrapy in their intended revolt from Athens, in order that he might satisfy the demand of his master, Dareius II., for the tribute arising from them, he sent to Sparta two Greek exiles who had taken refuge at his court (Calligei-tus of Megara and Timagoras of Cyzicus), propos­ing an alliance, and urging that a Lacedaemonian fleet should be despatched to the Hellespont. The government, however, acting chiefly under the in­fluence of Alcibiades, decided in favour of a counter application to the same effect from Tissaphernes, the satrap of Lydia ; but, in the congress which the Spartans shortly after held at Corinth, it was resolved to send aid to the Hellespont after Chios and Lesbos should be won from Athens, and, in the same year, a squadron of twenty-seven ships, which had been prepared for this service, was de­spatched with orders to proceed under Clearchus to co-operate with Pharnabazus, if it should seem fit to the Spartan commissioners who were sent out at the same time to inquire into the conduct of Astyo-chus (Thuc. viii. 6, 8, 39). Nothing, however, appears to have been attempted by the Lacedae­monians in this quarter till the spring of 411, when dercyllidas marched thither, and, being joined by Pharnabazus, gained possession of Abydus, and, for a time, of Lampsacus. In the following sum­mer, as Pharnabazus promised to maintain any force which might come to his aid, and the supplies from Tissaphernes were more grudgingly and scan­tily furnished, the Spartans sent forty .ships under Clearchus to the Hellespont, of which ten only arrived there ; but, the same motives still conti­nuing to operate with them, and the duplicity of Tissaphernes becoming more and more apparent, the whole armament under Mindarus soon after left Miletus and sailed northward to unite itself with Pharnabazus (Thuc. viii. 61, 62, 80, 99—109). In the battle between the Athenian and Lacedaemonian fleets, which was fought near Abydus in the same year (b. c. 411), and in which the Athenians were vie-

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