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age and birthplace of Phanodemus are uncertain. It has been conjectured, from a passage in Proclus (ad Platon. Tim. p. 30, ed. Basil.)* that Theo-pompus wrote against him, but the passage in Proclus does not prove this. Phanodemus must in any case have lived before the time of Augustus, as he is cited both by the grammarian Didymus (Harpocrat. s. v. ya/j.-n\ia) and Dionysius of Hali-carnassus (i. 61). The birthplace of Phanodemus would, according to a passage of Hesychius (s. v. TaAeoi), be Tarentum, since the latter speaks both of Phanodemus and Rhinthon as TapsvTWoi • but it has been well conjectured, that we ought in this passage to read TapevrTvos, thus making Rhinthon alone the Tarentine. It is much more probable that he was a native of the little island of Icus, one of the Cyclades, since we know that he wrote a special work on that island. In any case he identified himself with Attica, and speaks with enthusiasm of its greatness and glory.
Three works of Phanodemus are cited, but of these the first was by far the most important. 1. 'Arfl/y, which has been already spoken of. It must have been a work of considerable extent, as the ninth book is referred to (Harpocrat. s. v. AeotKopeiov). We annex a few of the passages of the ancient writers, in which it is quoted: a complete list is contained in the works of which we give the titles below (Athen. iii. p. 114, c. ix. p. 392, d. x. p. 437, c, xi. p. 465, a.; Plut. Them. 13, dm. 12, 19). 2. Arj\iaKa (Harpocrat. s. v. 'E/carTjs vijcros). There seems no good reason for changing the name of Phanodemus into that of Phanodicus in this passage of Harpocration, as Vossius has done, nor to adopt the alteration of Siebelis, by which the work is assigned to Semus. 3. 'I/aa/ca, an account of the island of Icus (Steph. Byz. s. v. 'I/cos). The fragments of Phanodemus have been collected by Siebelis, Phano-demi, Demonis, &c., Fragmenta, Lips. 1812 (p. v. and pp. 3—14), and by C. and Th. Miiller, Frag-menta Historicorum Graecorum, Paris, 1841 (pp. Jxxxiii. Ixxxvii. and pp. 366—370).
PHANODICUS (ZavoSiKos), a Greek writer of uncertain date, wrote a work entitled A^Xtawa. (Schol. ad Apoll. Rliod. i. 211, 419 ; Diog. Lae'rt. i. 31, 82.)x
An inscription found at Sigeum, and written boustrophedon, is referred by Bockh to the above-mentioned Phanodicus. The inscription, which begins QavoftiKOv el/A tow 'EpfjioKpdrovs tov IIpoKovriaiov, belonged to the base of a statue erected to the honour of Phanodicus, and' is evidently later than the time of Augustus and Tiberius, though it would at first sight appear from the style of the writing to have been of very ancient date. (Bockh, Corp. Inscr. vol. i. n. 8.)
PHANOMACHUS (*o^/*axos),an Athenian, the son of Callimachus. He was one of the generals to whom the inhabitants of Potidaea surrendered, b. c. 429. He was shortly afterwards the colleague of Xenophon the son of Euripides, in an expedition against the Chalcidians. (Thuc. ii. 70, 79 ; Diod. xii. 47.) [C. P. M.]
PHANOSTHENES(*ow(T06V^),anAndrian, was entrusted by the Athenians, in b, a 407, with the command of four ships, and was sent to Andros to succeed Conon on that station. On his way, he fell in with two Thurian gallies, under the command of Dorieus, and captured them with their crews. (Xen. HelL i. 5. §§ 18, 19 ; Plat. Tow, p.
541 ; Ael. V. H. xiv. 5 ; Ath. xi. p. 506, a. ; sec above, vol. i. pp. 233, b. 1067, a.) [E. E.]
PHANOTEUS («t>cm>Teik), a Phocian and friend of Orestes. (Soph. Elect. 45, 660.) [L. S.]
PHANOTHEA (*avo0ea), was the wife of the Athenian Icarius. [!carius, No. 1.] She was said to have invented the hexameter. (Clem. Alex. Strom. i. p. 366.) Porphyrius designates her as the Delphic priestess of Apollo (?) acajou, Stob. Florikg. xxi. 26.) [W. M. G.]
PHANTASIA («f»cH/Ta<7io), one of those nu merous personages (in this case evidently mythic), to whom Homer is said to have been indebted for his poems. She was an Egyptian, the daughter of Nicarchus, an inhabitant of Memphis. She wrote an account of the Trojan war, and the wanderings of Odysseus ; and her poems were deposited in the temple of Hephaestus at Memphis. Homer procured a copy from one of the sacred scribes, named Phanites. From this tradition, Lipsius, while he discredits the story, infers the early establishment of libraries in Egypt. (Lipsius, Syntagm. Bibliotli. c. 1; Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. i. p. 208.) [W.M.G.]
PHANTON (*dvro>v)9 of Phlius, a Pytha gorean philosopher, one of the last of that school, a disciple of Philolaus and Eurytus, and, probably in his old age, contemporary with Aristoxenus, the Pe ripatetic, b. c. 320. (lamblich. de Vit. Pythag. cc. 35, 36; Diog. Laert. viii. 46.) [W. M. G.]
PHAON (<t>a£oi/), the celebrated favourite of the poetess Sappho. He was a boatman at Mytilene, and already at an advanced age and of ugly ap pearance ; but on one occasion he very willingly, and without accepting payment, carried Aphrodite across the sea, for which the goddess gave him youth and beauty. After this Sappho is said to have fallen in love with him. (Aelian, V. H. xii. 18 ; Palaeph. 49 • Lucian, Dial. Mort. 9 ; comp. sappho.) [L. S.]
PHAON, a freedman of the emperor Nero, in whose villa in the neighbourhood of the city Nero took refuge, when the people rose against him, and where he met his death a. d. 68. (Suet. Ner. 48, 49 ; Dion Cass. Ixiii. 28 ; Aur. Vict. Epit. 5.)
PHAON (4>aw^), one of the most ancient of the Greek physicians, who must have lived in or before the fifth century b. c., as he was either a contemporary or predecessor of Hippocrates. He was one of the persons to whom some of the ancient critics attributed the treatise Tlfpl Amrrrjs 'Tyteiv^s, De Salubri Victus Ratione, which forms part of the Hippocratic Collection. [hippocrates, p. 486, a.] (Galen, Comment in Hippocr. " De Vict. Rat. in Morb. Adit:" i. 17, vol. xv. p. 455.) [W. A. G.]
PHARACIDAS (<f>apa«-i8as), a Lacedaemonian who commanded a fleet of thirty ships sent by the Spartans and their allies to the assistance of the elder Dionysius, when Syracuse was besieged by the Carthaginians under Himilco, b. c. 396. Having fallen in with a squadron of Carthaginian ships, he took nine of them, and carried them safely into the port of Syracuse. His arrival there infused fresh vigour into the besieged, and he appears to have contributed essentially to the successes that followed. At the same time he lent the weight of his name and influence as the representative of Sparta, to support the authority of Dionysius. (Diod. xiv. 63, 70, 72 ; Polyaen. ii. 11.) [E.H.B.]
PHARANDATES (^apaMrrj^ a Persian,