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have been given to the world : the one commenced by Lennep, and published after his death by Valck- enaer (4to. Groningae, 1777), which contains a greatly improved text and valuable notes, together with a Latin translation of Bentley's dissertations. The latter are omitted by Schaefer in his edition (8vo. Lips. 1823), in which he has reproduced the text and notes of Lennep, but with many correc tions of the former and some additional notes of his own. This last edition is decidedly the best that has ever appeared. The epistles have also been repeatedly translated into Italian and French, and three separate versions of them have appeared in English, the latest of which is that by Franklin, Lond. 1749. [E. H. B.]
PHALCES ($d\itris\ a son of Temenus, and father of Rhegnidas, was one of the Heracleidae. He took possession of the government of Sicyon, and there founded the temple of Hera Prodromia. (Paus. ii. 6. § 4, 11. § 2, 13. § 1 ; Strab. viii. p. 389.) He is said to have killed his father and his sister Hyrnetho. (Paus. ii. 29. § 3.) A Trojan of the same name occurs in Homer. (II. xiv. 513.) [L. S.]
PHALEAS, or PHA'LLEAS (<l»a\e'as, *a\- Aeas), a writer on political economy mentioned by Aristotle. He was a native of Chalcedon. He had turned his attention mainly to the relations of property, his theory being that all the citizens in a state should have an equal amount of property, and be educated in the same manner. (Arist. Pol. ii. 4. §§ 1,6, 12, 9. §8.) [C.P.M.]
PHALERION, a painter of second-rate merit, who painted a picture of Scylla. (Plin. H. N. xxxv. 11. s. 40. § 38.) [P. S.]
PHALEREUS, DEME'TRIUS. [demetrius.]
PHALERUS (3>a\-npos). 1. One of the La-pithae, who was present at the wedding of Peiri-thous. (Hes. Scut. Here. 180.)
2. A son of Alcon, and grandson of Erechtheus or Eurysthenes, was one of the Argonauts, and the founder of Gyrton. (Orph. Arg. 144.) He is said to have emigrated with his daughter Chalciope or Chalcippe to Chalcis in Euboea, and when his father demanded that he should be sent back, the Chalcidians refused to deliver him up. (Schol. ad Apollon. Rliod. i. 97.) In the port of Phalerum near Athens, which was believed to have derived its name from him, an altar was dedicated to him. (Paus. i. 1. § 4.) [L. S.]
PHALPNUS (*aA?m), a Zacynthian, in the service of the satrap Tissaphernes, with whom he was in high favour in consequence of his preten sions to military science. After the battle of Cunaxa, b.c. 401, he accompanied the Persian heralds, whom Artaxerxes and Tissaphernes sent to the Cyreaii Greeks to require them to lay down their arms ; and he recommended his countrymen to submit to the king, as the only means of safety. Plutarch calls him Phalenus. (Xen. Anab. ii. 1. §§ 7—23 ; Pint. Artax. 13.) [E. E.]
PHAMAEAS or PHAMEAS, HIMILCO.
[HlMILCO, No. 11.]
PHAMEAS, a rich freedman from Sardinia, was the uncle of M. Tigellius Hermogenes, of whom Horace speaks (Sat. i. 2). Phameas died in b. c. 49 ; and in b. c. 45 Cicero undertook to plead some cause relating to the property of Phameas against the young Octavii, the sons of Cneius. Cicero did this in order to please the
dictator Caesar, who patronised the musician Tigellius ; but he did not fulfil his promise, for reasons which he assigned to Tigellius, but which appeared unsatisfactory to the latter. (Cic. ad Ait. ix. 9. § 4, 13. § 6, ad Fam. ix. 16, vii. 24, ad Att. xiii. 49 ; Weichert, Pott. Lat. p. 304 ; Drumann's Rom. vol. vi. p. 318.)
PHANES (*o»>97*). 1. A mystic divinity in the system of the Orphics, is also called Eros, Eri-capaeus, Metis, and Protogonus. He is said to have sprung from the mystic mundane egg, and to have been the father of all gods, and the creator of men. (Proc. in Plat. Crat. p. 36 ; Orph. Arg. 15 ; Lactant. Instil, i. 5.)
PHANES (•fccu'rjs), a Greek of Halicarnassus, of sound judgment and military experience, in the service of Amasis, king of Egypt, fled from the latter and passed over to Cambyses, king of Persia. When Cambyses invaded Egypt, the Greek arid Carian mercenaries in the service of the Egyptian monarch, put to death the sons of Phanes in the presence of their father, and drank of their blood. (Herod, iii. 4, 11.)
PHANGO, FUFI'CIUS. [fango.]
PHANIAS or PHAE'NIAS (*awas, Qcuvias ; the MSS. vary between the two forms, and both are given by Suidas). 1. Of Eresos in Lesbos, a distinguished Peripatetic philosopher, the immediate disciple of Aristotle, and the contemporary, fellow-citizen, and friend of Theophrastus, a letter of whose to Phanias is mentioned by Diogenes (v. 37 ; Schol. in Apollon. i. 972 ; Strab. xiii. p. 618). He is placed by Suidas (s. v.) at 01. Ill, b.c. 336 (comp. Clem. Alex. Strom. i. p. 145, Sylb.). Phanias does not seem to have founded a distinct school of his own, but he was a most diligent writer upon every department of philosophy, as it was studied by the Peripatetics, especially logic, physics, history, and literature. In fact he was, for the extent of his studies, the most distinguished disciple of Aristotle, after Theophrastus. His writings may be classified in the following man-
I. On Logic. Of this class of his writings we have but little information, probably because, being only paraphrases and supplements to the works of Aristotle, they were, in after generations, eclipsed by the writings of the master himself. In a passage of Ammonius (ad Categ. p. 13 ; Schol. Arist. p. 28, a. 40, ed. Brandis) we are told that Eudemios, Phanias, and Theophrastus wrote, in emulation of their master, KarTiyopias Kal irepl ep/j.rji/eias Kal *Kva\vriKJiv. There is also a rather important passage respecting ideas, preserved by Alexander of Aphrodisias, from a work of Phanias, irpos Aiodupov (Schol. Arist. p. 566, a. ed. Brandis), which may possibly be the same as the work npos rovs «ro0i(rras, from which Athenaeus cites a criticism on certain musicians (xiv. p. 638).
II. On Natural Science. A work on plants, res (pvriKci, or to. Trepl ^urco*', is repeatedly quoted by Athenaeus, and frequently in connection with the work of Theophrastus on the same subject, to which, therefore, it has been supposed by some to have formed a supplement. (Ath. ii. p. 54, f, 58, d, ix. p. 406, c. &c.) The fragments quoted by