The Ancient Library

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On this page: Pentheus – Penthilus – Penula – Pepaepiris – Pepagomenus – Pephredo – Peponila – Pepromene – Pera – Peraethus – Percennius – Perdiccas


Achilles himself buried it on the banks of the Xantlius. (Tzetz. ad Lye. I.e.; Diet. Cret. iv. 3.; Tryphiod. 37.) Some, further, state that she was not killed by Achilles, but by his son Pyrrhus (Dar. Phryg. 36), or that she first slew Achilles, and Zeus on the request of Thetis having recalled Achilles to life, she was then killed by him. (Eustath. ad Horn. p. 1696.) [L. S.J

PENTHEUS (nej/eerfs), a son of Echion and Agave, the daughter of Cadmus. (Eurip. Phoen. iv. 942 ; Paus. ix. 5. § 2.) He was the successor of Cadmus as king of Thebes, and being opposed to the introduction of the worship of Dionysus in his kingdom, he was torn to pieces by his own mother and two other Mainades, Ino and Autonoe, who in their Bacchic frenzy believed him to be a wild beast. (Ov. Met. iii. 513, &c.; Eurip. Bacch. 1215; Philost. Imay. i. 1 ; Apollod. iii. 5. § 2; Ilygin. Fab. 184 ; Serv. ad Aen. iv. 469 ; Nonnus, Dionys. xlv. 46; Oppian, Cyneg. iv. 289.) The place where Pentheus suffered death, is said to have been Mount Cithaeron, but according to some it was* Mount Parnassus. Pentheus is said to have got upon a tree, for the purpose of witnessing in secret the revelry of the Bacchic women, but on being discovered by them, he was torn to pieces. (Eurip. Baccli. 816, 954, 1061, &c. ; Theocrit. xxvi. 10.) According to a Corinthian tradition, the women were afterwards commanded by an oracle to find out that tree, and to worship it like the god Dionysus himself; and out of the tree two carved images of the god were made accord­ ingly. (Paus. ii. 2. § 6.) [L. S.]

PENTHILUS (IleVfltAos), a son of Orestes and Erigone, is said to have led a colony of Aeo-Ijans to Thrace. He was the father of Echelatus and Damasias. (Paus. ii. 18. § 5, iii. 2. § 1, v. 4, § 2, vii. 6. § 2; Tzetz. ad Lye. 1374 ; Strab. xiii. p. 582 ; Aristot. Polit. v. 8, 13.)

There was also a son of Periclymenus of this name. (Paus. ii. 18. § 7.) [L. S.]



PEPAEPIRIS (ityTrampis), a queen of Bos­ porus, known only from her coins, from which it appears that she was the wife of Sauromates I, (Eckhel, Doctr. Numor. vol. ii. p. 375.) [sauro­ mates.] [E. H. B.]

PEPAGOMENUS, DEMETRIUS (Ar^-rpios neTrtryojuej/os), a Greek medical writer, who is supposed to have lived towards the end of the thirteenth century after Christ, and to have de­dicated one of his works to the emperor Michael Palaeologus, a. d. 1260—1282. He is the author of a treatise, Ilepi IloScrypas, De Podagra, which has been attributed by some persons to Michael Psellus (Leo Allatius, De Psettis, § 52, ap. Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. v. ed. vet.). It consists of forty-five short chapters, besides the preface and conclusion, and, though principally compiled from former writers, is curious and interesting. A good ana­lysis of its contents is given by Mr. Adams, in his commentary on Paulus Aegineta (iii. 7,8). It was first published without the author's name, in a Latin translation by Marcus Masurus, Rom. 1517, 8vo.; and afterwards in Greek and Latin, Paris, 1558, 8vo. The last and best edition is by J. S. Bernard, Greek and Latin, Ludg. Bat. 1743, 8vo., sometimes found with a new title page, Arnhem. 1753. The Latin translation by Masurus is in­serted in H. Stephani Medicae Artis Principes,



Paris, 1567, fol. ; and the Greek and Latin text in the tenth volume of Chartier's Hippocrates and Galen.

Fabricius '(Bibl. Graec. vol. iii. p. 531, ed. vet.) conjectures that Demetrius Pepagomenus may be the author of the little treatise, Ilept rrjs twv ei/ N6<ppots H.0.6&V Aiayvtaffews Kal ©eparrcfas, De Renum Affectuum Dignotione et Curatione, which is wrongly attributed to Galen [galen, p. 215. § 97], but there seems to be no sufficient ground for this opinion. Demetrius Pepagomenus is perhaps the author of two other short Greek works, the one entitled 'lepaKocrofyiov, % irepl rrj? tw 'lepa-K<av 'AvarpoQfjs re teal 'ETn^eAe/as, Hieracoso-phium, swede Accipitrum Educaiione et Curatione^ the other Kwovofyiov, fj nepl Kvvwv 'EmueXelas, Cynosophium., sive de Canum Curatione ; which are to be found in the collection of " Rei Accipitrariae Scriptores," published by Nic. Rigaltius, Greek and Latin, Paris, 1612, 4to. and elsewhere. The treatise De Canum Curatione is sometimes attributed to Phaemon. (Choulant, Handb. der B'ucherkunde fur die Aeltere Medicin; Haller, Bibl. Medic. Pract. vol. i. ; Fabric. Bibl. Graec.) [W.A. G.]

PEPAGOMENUS, NICOLA'US (Nt/coAoos ITeTra-yojucVos), wrote a eulogium on the martyr Isidorus, of which a part is given by Allatius, ad Eustathium Antiochen. p. 69. It is said that other writings of his are to be found in the public libraries of Paris. As he was a correspondent of Nicephorus Gregoras; he must have lived about a. d. 1340. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. vii. p. 649, vol. x. p. 265, vol. xi. p. 293). [W. M. G.]

PEPHREDO or PEMPHRAEDO (n^p^u or ITe^prfSotf), a daughter of Phorcvs, and one.of the Graeae. (Hes. Theog. 273 ; Apollod. ii. 4. § 2 ; Tzetz. ad Lye. 838 ; Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. iv, 1515; Zenob. i. 41.) [L.S.]

PEPONILA. [sabjnus, julius.]

PEPROMENE (ne7rp«,u€i/r]), namely uoipa, that is, the share destined by fate, occurs also as a proper name in the same sense as Moira or Fate. (Paus. viii. 21. § 2; Horn. IL iii. 309.) [L.S.]

PERA, the name of a family of the Junia gens.

1. D. junius D. f. D. n. pera, was consul b. c. 266, with N. Fabius Pictor, and triumphed twice in this year, the first time over the Sassinates, and the second time over the Sallentini and Mes-sapii. He was censor in b. c. 253, with L. Pos-tumius Megellus. (Fasti Capit.)

2. M. junius D. p. D. n. pera, son of the preceding, was consul b. c. 230 with M. Aemiliua Barbula, censor b. c. 225 with C. Claudius Centho, and dictator b. c. 216 after the fatal battle of Cannae. In order to raise soldiers he armed not only slaves, but even criminals. (Fasti Capit.; Liv. xxii. 57, 59, xxiii. 14.)

PERAETHUS (IL->a<0os), a son of Lycaon, from whom the town of Peraetheis in Arcadia was believed to have derived its name. (Paus. viii. 3. §1,27. §3.) [L.S.]

PERCENNIUS, a common soldier, and pre­viously employed in the theatres to hiss or applaud, as the case might be, was the ringleader in the formidable mutiny of the Pannoiiian legions, which broke out at the beginning of the reign of Tiberius, A. D. 14. He was killed by order of Drusus shortly after his arrival in the camp. (Tac. Ann. i. 16,17,28,29.)

PERDICCAS (EtepSiWs). 1. Son of Orontes, a Macedonian of the province of Orestis, waa

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