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PELOPS.

dameia slew him, because her own sons refused to do it. (Plut. Parall. Min. 33.) According to the common tradition, however, Pelops, who suspected his sons of the murder, expelled them from the country, and they dispersed all over Peloponnesus. (Schol. ad Eurip. Or. 5 ; Paus. v. 8. § 1.) Hip-poclameia, dreading the anger of her husband, fled to Midea in Argolis. from whence her remains were afterwards conveyed by Pelops, at the command of an oracle, to Olympia. (Paus. vi. 20. § 4.) Some state that Hippodameia made away with herself. (Hygin. Fab. 85, 243.) She had a sanctuary at Olympia in the grove Altis, to which women alone had access, and in the race course at Olympia there was a bronze statue of her. (Paus. vi. 20. § 10.)

4. The remains of Pelops. While the Greeks were engaged in the siege of Troy, they were in­formed by an oracle, that the city could not be taken, unless one of the bones of Pelops were brought from Elis to Troas. The shoulder bone accordingly was fetched from Letrina or Pisa, but was lost together with the ship in which it was carried, off the coast of Euboea. Many years afterwards it was dragged up from the bottom of the sea by a fisherman, Demarmenus of Eretria, who concealed it in the sand, and then consulted the Delphic oracle about it. At Delphi he met ambassadors of the Eleians, who had come to con­sult the oracle respecting a plague, which was raging in their country. The Pythia requested Demarmenus to give the shoulder bone of Pelops to the Eleians. This was done accordingly, and the Eleians appointed Demarmenus to guard the venerable relic. (Paus. v. 13. § 3 ; Tzetz. ad Lye. 52, 54.) - According to some the Palladium was made of the bones of Pelops. (Clem. Alex. ad Gent. p. 30, d ; comp. Plin. H. N. xxviii. 4.) Pelops was honoured at Olympia above all other heroes. (Paus. v. 13. § 1.) His tomb with an iron sar­cophagus existed on the banks of the Alpheius, not far from the temple of Artemis near Pisa ; and every year the ephebi there scourged themselves, shedding their blood as a funeral sacrifice to the hero. (Schol. ad Find. Ol. i. 146.) The spot on which his sanctuary (TleXoTriov) stood in the grove Altis, was said to have been dedicated by He­racles, who also offered to him the first sacrifices. (Paus. 1. g. ; v. 26, in fin. ; Apollod. ii. 7. § 2.) The magistrates of the Eleians likewise offered to him there an annual sacrifice, consisting of a black ram, with special ceremonies. (Paus. v. 13. §2.) His chariot was shown in the temple of Demeter at Phlius, and his sword in the treasury of the Sicyonians at Olympia. (Paus. ii. 14. § 3, vi. 19. §3.)

2. Of Opus, one of the suitors of Hippodameia who was unsuccessful, and was killed. (Schol. ad Find. Ol. i. 127.)

3. A son of Agamemnon by Cassandra. (Paus. ii. 16. §5.) f [L. S.]

PELOPS (IlgXo\|/), a physician of Smyrna, in Lydia, in the second century after Christ, cele­brated for his anatomical knowledge. He was a pupil of Numisianus (Galen, Comment, in Hippocr. " De Nat. /Torn." ii. 6. vol. xv. p. 136), and one of Galen's earliest tutors, who went to Smyrna, and resided in his house for some time, on purpose to attend his lectures and those of the Platonic phi­losopher Albimis, about a. d. 150. (De Anat. Admin, i. 1, vol. ii. p. 217, De Atra Bile, c. 3, vol. v. p. 112, De Locis AffecLiii. 11, vol. viii. p. 194,

PENATES.

De Libris Propriis, c. 2, and De Ord. Libror. suort vol; xix. pp. 16, 17, 57.) He wrote a work en­titled 'iTTTroKparemt Eiffajuyal., Introductiones Hip-pocraticae, consisting of at least three books (Galen, De Muscul. Dissect, init. vol. xviii. pt. ii. p. 926), in the second of which he maintained that the brain was the origin not only of the nerves, but also of the veins and arteries, though in another of his works he considered the veins to arise from the liver, like most of the ancient anatomists (Galen, De Hippocr. et Plat. Deer. vi. 3, 5. vol. v. pp. 527, 544). He is several times mentioned in other parts of Galen's writings, and is said by the author of the spurious commentary on the Aphorisms of Hippocrates, that goes under the name of Oribasius (p. 8. ed. Basil. 1535), to have translated the Aphorisms into Latin, word for word. He is quoted also by Paulus Aegineta (iii. 20, p. 430), with reference to the treatment of tetanus.

2. The medical writer quoted by Pliny (H. N. xxxii. 16), must be a different person, who lived about a century earlier than Galen's tutor, though Fabricius, by an oversight, speaks of him as the same person (Bill. Gr. vol. xiii. p. 360, ed vet.) : and this is probably the physician quoted by Ascle- piades Pharmacion (ap. Galen, De Antid. ii. 11, vol. xiv. p. 172). [W.A. G.]

PELOR (IleAwp), one of the Spartae or men that grew forth from the dragons' teeth which Cadmus sowed at Thebes. (Apollod. iii. 4. § 1 ; Paus. ix. 5. § 1 ; Schol. ad Eurip. Phoen. 670 ; comp. cadmus.) [L. S.]

PENATES, the household gods of the Romans, both in regard to a private family and to the state, as the great family of citizens: hence we shall have to distinguish between private and public Penates. The name is unquestionably connected with penm, they being the gods who were wor­shipped, and whose images were kept in the central part of the house, or the penetralia, and who thus protected the whole household. (Isidor. Orig. viii. 11 ; Fest. s. vv. Penetralia, Penus.) The Greeks, when speaking of the Roman Penates, called them &eoi TrarpoJot, yeve6\ioi9 KT^cnoi, ^v-^ioi^ epKioi. (Dionys. i. 67.) The Lares therefore were included among the Penates ; both names, in fact, are often used synonymously (Schol. ad Horat. Epod. ii. 43 ; Plaut. Merc. v. 1. 5 ; Atthd. ii. 8. 16 ; Plin. H. N. xxviii. 20), and the figures of two youths whom Dionysius (i. 68) saw in the temple of the Penates, were no doubt the same as the Lares praestites, that is, the twin founders of the city of Rome. The Lares, however, though they may be regarded as identical with the Penates, were yet not the only Penates, for each family had usually no more than one Lar, whereas the Penates are always spoken of in the plural. (Plaut. Merc. v. 1. 5.) Now considering that Jupiter and Juno were regarded as the protectors and the promoters of happiness, peace, and concord in the family, and that Jupiter is not only called a deus penetralis (Fest. s. v. Herceus), but that sacrifices were of­fered to him on the hearth along with the Lares, there can be little doubt but that Jupiter and Juno too were worshipped as Penates. Vesta also is reckoned among the Penates (Serv. ad Aen. ii. 297 ; Macrob. Sat. iii. 4 ; Ov. Met. xv. 864), for each hearth, being the symbol of domestic union, had its Vesta. All other Penates, both public and private, seem to have consisted of certain sacred relics connected with indefinite divinities, arid

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