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PEISISTRATUS.

ings left incomplete by Peisistratus, or erecting new ones (though according to Suidas, s. v. to 'iTnrdpxou Ter^o^, Hipparchus exacted a good deal of money from the Athenians for building a wall round the Academy) for maintaining their mercenary troops, who bore the appellation Au/co-irodcs (Suid. s. v. ; Schol. ad Aristoph. Lys. 664), and providing for the religious solemnities. Hip­parchus inherited his father's literary tastes. It was he who erected on the roads leading to the country towns of Attica busts of Hermes, in­scribed on one side with the distances from the city (which distances were measured from the altar of the twelve gods set up in the agora by Peisistratus, the son of Hippias, Time. vi. 54 ; Herod, ii. 7), and on the other side with some moral maxim in verse. (Pseudo-Plat. Hipparch. p. 228, d.) He also arranged the manner in which the rhapsodes were to recite the Homeric poems at the Panathenaic festival (ibid. p. 228, b). Several distinguished contemporary poets appear to have lived at the court of the Peisistratidae under the patronage of Hipparchus, as, for example, Simo-nides of Ceos (Pseudo-Plat. Hipparch. p. 228, c. ; Aelian. V. H. viii. 2), Anacreon of Teos (ibid.)) Lasus of Hermione, and Onomacritus (Herod, vii. 6). The latter was employed in making a col­lection of oracles of Musaeus, and was banished on being detected in an attempt to interpolate them. [onomacritus]. This collection of oracles after­wards fell into the hands of Cleomenes. (Herod, v. 90.) The superstitious reverence for oracles and divination which appears to have led Hipparchus to banish Onomacritus again manifests itself in the story of the vision (Herod, v. 56). That he was also addicted to erotic gratification appears from the story of Harmodius, and the authority of Heracleides Ponticus, who terms him fowri/cos.

Of the particular events of the first fourteen years of the government of Hippias we know scarcely anything. Thucydides (vi. 54) speaks of their carrying on wars, but what these were we do not know. It was during the tyranny of Hippias that Miltiades was sent to take possession of the Cher-sonesus. [miltjades J But a great change in the character of his government ensued upon the murder of Hipparchus (b.c. 514), for the circum­stances connected with which the reader is referred to the articles harmodius and leaena. Hip­pias displayed on the occasion great presence of mind. As soon as he heard of the assassination of his brother, instead of rushing to the scene of it, he went quietly up to the armed citizens who were forming the procession, and, as though he in­tended to harangue them, directed them to go without their arms to a spot which he pointed out. He then ordered his guards to seize their arms, and to apprehend those whom he suspected of being concerned in the plot, and all who had daggers concealed about them. (What Polyaenus, i. 21. § 2, relates of Peisistratus has probably arisen out of a confusion with these events.) Under the influence of revengeful feelings and fears for his own safety Hippias now became a morose and suspicious tyrant. His rule became harsh, arbi­trary, and exacting. (Thucyd. vi. 57—60.) He put to death great numbers of the citizens, and raised money by extraordinary imposts. It is probably to this period that we should refer the measures described by Aristotle (Oeconom. ii. p. 1347, ed. Bekker), such as having houses that

PEISISTRATUS.

were built so as to interfere with the public con­venience put up for sale j and, under pretence of issuing a new coinage, getting the old coinage brought in at a low valuation, and then issuing if again without alteration. Feeling himself unsafe at Athens he began to look abroad for some place of retreat for himself and his family, in case he should be expelled from Athens. With this view he gave his daughter Archedice [archedice] in marriage to Aeantides, the son of Hippoclus, tyrant of Lampsacus, an alliance which he would doubtless have thought beneath him, had he not observed that Hippoclus was in great favour with Dareius.

The expulsion of the Peisistratidae was finally brought about by the Alcmaeonidae and Lacedae­monians. The former, since their last quarrel with Peisistratus, had shown unceasing hostilitv and

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hatred towards him and his successors, which the latter met by tokens of similar feelings, insomuch that they not only demolished their houses, but dug up their tombs. (Isocrates, de Big. 26, p. 351, ed. Steph.) The Alcmaeonidae were joined by other Athenian exiles, and had fortified a strong­hold on the frontier of Attica, named Leipsydrion, on the heights of Parnes, above Paeonia (Aristot. ap. Schol. ad Aristoph. Lysht. 665 ; Suidas, s. v. eVl Aei^uSpiou /adx^n and Ay/coTroSes. Thirlwall, vol. ii. p. 70, note, remarks that the description seems to relate to some family seat of the Paeoni-dae, who were kinsmen of the Alcmaeonidae). They were, however, repulsed with loss in an at­tempt to force their way back to Athens, and compelled to evacuate the fortress (Suidas, /. c.). Still they none the more remitted their machi­nations against the tyrants (Herod, v. 62). By well-timed liberality they had secured the favour of the Amphictyons and that of the Delphic oracle [alcmaeonidae], which they still further secured by bribing the Pythia (Herod, v. 63). The re­peated injunctions of the oracle to the Lacedaemo­nians to free Athens roused them at length to send an army under Anchimolius for the purpose of driving out the Peisistratidae (though hitherto the family had been closely connected with them by the ties of hospitality). Anchimolius landed at Phalerus, but was defeated and slain by Hippias, who was assisted by a body of Thessalian cavalry under Cineas. The Lacedaemonians now sent a larger force under Cleomenes. The Thessalian cavalry were defeated on the borders, apparently at a place called Pallenion (Andoc. de Myst. 106), and returned home ; and Hippias, unable to with­stand his enemies in the field, retreated into the Acropolis. This being well supplied with stores, the Lacedaemonians, who were unprepared for a siege, would, in the judgment of Herodotus, have been quite unable to force Hippias to surrender, had it not been that his children fell into their hands, while being conveyed out of Attica for greater security, and were only restored on con­dition that Hippias and his connections should evacuate Attica within five days. They retired to Sigeum, b. c. 510. (Herod, v. 64, &c. ; Paus. iii. 4. § 2, 7. § 8 ; Aristoph. Lysist. 1150, &c.). The family of the tyrants was condemned to perpetual banishment, a sentence which was maintained even in after times, when decrees of amnesty were passed (Andoc. de Myst. § 78). A monument re­cording the offences of the tyrants was set up in the Acropolis. (Thue. vi. 55.)

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