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PAUSANIAS.

accession by Amyntas II., b. c. 394. (Diod. si/-, 82, 84.)

160

PAUSANIAS.

circumvallation. He defeated the assailants with some slaughter, but did not follow up his victory, and secretly sent a message to the besieged. At his suggestion a deputation was sent by them to himself and the ephors, an armistice was concluded with the exiles, and their deputies were sent to Sparta to plead their cause. The result was, that fifteen commissioners were appointed, in conjunc­tion with Pausanias, to settle the differences of the two Athenian parties. An amnesty was published, including all but the thirty tyrants, the Eleven, and the Ten who had been governors of Peiraeeus. Pausanias then disbanded his forces (Xen. Plellen. ii. 4. § 28—39 ; Paus. iii. 5. § 1 ; Pint. Li/sand. c. 21). On his return to Sparta, however, the opposite party brought him to trial before a court consisting of the gerontes, the ephors, and the other king Agis. Fourteen of the gerontes, with king Agis, voted for his condemnation ; the rest acquitted him. (Pans. iii. 5. § 2.)

In b. c. 395, when hostilities broke out between Phocis and Thebes, and the former applied to Sparta, Avar was decreed against Thebes, and Lj'sander was sent into Phocis, to raise all the forces he could in that quarter. Pausanias was to join him on an appointed day with the Pelopon-nesian troops. These collected so slowly, that •when Lysander with the troops which he had raised reached Haliartus, Pausanias had not ar­rived. A battle ensued under the walls of Haliar­tus, in which Lysander was slain. Next day Pausanias reached the spot, but the arrival of an Athenian army rendered him unwilling to engage. A council of war was held, in which it was de­cided that application should be made for permis­sion to carry away the dead bodies of those who had been slain in the late engagement. This was only granted on condition that Pausanias should withdraw his forces from Boeotia ; and these terms were accepted. On his return to Sparta, Pau­sanias was impeached, and, besides his conduct on this last occasion, his leniency to Thrasybulus and his party at Peiraeeus was again brought up against him; and Pausanias, seeing that a fair trial was not to be hoped for, went into voluntary exile, and was condemned to death. He sought shelter in the sanctuary of Athene Alea at Tegea, and was still living here in b. c. 385, when Mantinea was besieged by his son Agesipolis, who succeeded him on the throne. Pausanias, who had friendly relations with the leading men of Mantinea, interceded with his son on behalf of the city. (Xen. Plellen. iii. 5. § 17—25, v. 2. § 3— 6; Paus. iii. 5. § 3 — 7 ; Plut. Lysand. c. 31.) Diodo-rus (xiv. 17) erroneously substitutes Pausanias for Agis in connection with the quarrel between the Lacedaemonians and Eleans.

3. An Athenian of the Deme Cerameis, cele­brated for his amorous propensities towards those of his own sex, and for his attachment to the poet Agathon. Both Plato (Conrnvium, p. 176, a., 180, c. ; comp. Protag. p. 315, d.) and Xenophon (Conmrnum^ 8. § 32) introduce him. It has been supposed that Pausanias was the author of a se­parate erotic treatise; but Athenaeus (v. p. 216) affirms that no treatise of the kind existed.

4. A son or brother of Derdas. (ScJioL ad Tliuc. i. 61.) He appears among the antagonists of king Perdiccas.

5. King of Macedonia, the son and successor of .Aeropus. He was assassinated in the year of his

COIN OF PAUSANIAS, KING OF MACEDONIA.

6. A pretender to the throne of Macedonia, According to the scholiast on Aeschines (p. 754, ed. Reiske), he belonged to the royal family. He made his appearance in b. c. 368, after Alexander II., the son of Amyntas II., had been assassinated by Ptolemaeus ; and, being supported by numerous adherents, gained possession of several towns. Eu-rydice, the widow of Am}rntas, sent to request the aid of the Athenian general, Iphicrates, who ex­pelled Pausanias from the kingdom. (Aeschines, de falsa Leg. c. 23, p. 31, ed. Steph. ; Corn. Nepos, IpJdci\ c. 3.)

7. A Macedonian youth of distinguished family,

v o •/ *

from the province of Orestis. He was one of the body-guard of king Philip, who, on account of his beauty, was much attached to him. Perceiving himself in danger of being supplanted in the affec­tion of Philip by a rival also called Pausanias, he, in the most opprobrious manner, assailed the latter, who complained to his friend Attalus, and soon after perished in battle with the Illyrians. Attalus contrived to take the most odious revenge on Pau­sanias, who complained of the outrage to Philip. But, apparently on account of his relationship to Attalus, and because he needed his services, Philip declined to inflict any punishment on Attalus. Pau­sanias accordingly directed his vengeance against Philip himself. An opportunity presented itself at the festival held by Philip at Aegae, as, in a mag­nificent procession, Philip approached, having di­rected his guards to keep at a distance, as though on such an occasion he had no need of them. Pau­sanias rushed forwards from the crowd, and, draw­ing a large Celtic sword from beneath his dress, plunged it into the king's side. The murderer forthwith rushed towards the gates of the town, where horses were ready for him. He was, how­ever, closely pursued by some officers of the king's guard, and, having stumbled and fallen, was de­spatched by them on the spot. Suspicion rested on Olympias and Alexander of having been privy to the deed. According to Justin, it was Ohrmpias who provided the horses for the flight of Pausanias ; and when his corpse was crucified she placed a crown of gold upon the head, caused the body to be burnt over the remains of her husband, and erected a monument to him in the same place., and even instituted yearly rites in memory of him. The sword with which he had assassinated the king she dedicated to Apollo. The suspicion with regard to Alexander is probably totally unfounded. There was likewise a story that Pausanias, while meditating revenge, having asked the sophist Her-mocrates which was the shortest way to fame, the latter replied, that it was by killing the man who had performed the greatest achievements. These

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