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fragmenta Vaticana, § '247., from the Lib. J. Edi-iionis secundae de Jurisdictiom singulari.
The enumeration of the works of Paulus is not made merely for the sake of completeness. To those who are conversant with the matter of juris prudence it shows his wonderful fertility and the great variety of subjects on which he was employed. Cujacius has devoted to the Libri ad Edwtum and the Qtiaestiones of Paulus the whole of the fifth vo lume of his works (ed. Neap. 1758), except a few pages, which are upon the Differentiae of Modes- tinus. The sixth volume of the same edition con tains the Recitationes Solemnes of Cujacius (a. d. 1588) on the Responsa of Paulus. The first volume of Cujacius contains the Interpretationes in Julii Pauli Receptarum Sententiarum Lilros quin- que. The industry of Paulus must have been un remitting, and the extent of his legal learning is proved by the variety of his labours. Perhaps no legal writer, ancient or modern, has handled so many subjects, if we except his great commentator. (Grotius, Vitae Jurisconsultoruitt ; Cujacius, Op. ed. Neapol. 1758 ; Zimmern, Gcschichte des Romis- cJien Privatreckts, 367, &c.; Paulus, Receptae Sen- tentiae cum Interpretatione Visiyottliorum^ ed. L. Arndts, Bonn, 1833.) [G. L.]
PAULUS, PASSIE'NUS, a contemporary and friend of the younger Pliny, was a distinguished Roman eques, and was celebrated for his elegiac and lyric poems. He belonged to the same municipium (Mevania in Umbria) as Propertius, whom he numbered among his ancestors. Pliny bestows the most unbounded praises upon the character, life, and poems of Passienus. An anecdote which Pliny relates respecting the jurist Javolenus Priscus and Passienus Paulus has given rise to much discussion, of which some account will be found under javolenus. (Plm. Ep. vi. 15, vii. 6, ix. 22.)
PAULUS, SE'RGIUS. 1. sergius paulus, proconsul (dvOviraros) of Cyprus, whom the Apostle Paul converted to Christianity (Acts, xiii. 7). He is not mentioned by any other writer ; but he may have been the father of the Sergius next mentioned.
2. L. sergius paulus, one of the consuls suffecti in A. r>. 04 (Fasti).
PAVOR, that is, Fear or Terror, was, together with Pallor or Paleness, a companion of Mars among the Romans. Their worship was believed to have been instituted by Tullus Hostilius during a plague, or at a critical moment in a battle. Their worship was attended to by Salii, called Pallorii and Pavorii. (Liv. i. 27 ; Aug. De Civ. Dei, iv. 15, 23 ; Stat. TJteb. iii. 425 ; Val. Flacc. iii. 89 j Claudian. in Riifin. i. 344.) [L. S.]
PAUSANIAS, historical. 1. A Spartan of the Agid branch of the royal family, the son of Cleombrotus and nephew of Leonidas (Time. i. 94 ; Herod, ix. 10). His mothers name was Alcathea or Alcithea (Schol. ad Time. i. 134 ; Schol. ad Aristopli. Equit. 1. 84 ; Suidas calls her 'AyxiQ*a > Polyaen. viii. 51, Theano). Several writers (Arist. Pdit. v. 1. § 5, vii. 13. § 13 ; Pint. Consol. ad Apollon. p. 182 ; Dem. in Neaer. § 97, p. 3378, ed. Reiske ; Suidas, s. v. nau<ra*>/as, &c.) incorrectly call him king (Paus. iii. 4. § 9) ; he only succeeded his father Cleombrotus in the guardian-
ship of his cousin Pleistarchus, the son of Leonldr.s, for whom he exercised the functions of royalty from b. c. 479 to the period of his death (Thuc. i. 94, 132 ; Herod, ix. 10). In b.c. 479, when the Athenians called upon the Lacedaemonians for aid against the Persians, the Spartans, after some delay (on the motives for which Bishop Thirlwall, Hist, of Greece,, vol. ii. p. 327, £c., has thrown considerable light), sent a body of five thousand Spartans, each attended by seven Helots, under the command of Pausanias. From Herodotus (ix. 53) it appears that Euryanax, the son of Dorieus, wns associated with him as commander. At the Isthmus Pausanias Avas joined by the other Pelopon-nesian allies, and at Eleusis by the Athenians, and forth with took the command of the combined forces (Thuc. i. 130 ; Herod, viii. 3 ; Paus. iii. 14. § 1 ; the words riyzi-iovia and tjye'taOou imply this), the other Greek generals forming a sort of council of war (Herod, ix. 50). The allied forces then crossed Cithaeron, and at Ervthrae Pausanias halted
and formed his line on the skirts of the mountain, his forces amounting to nearly 110,000 men. Here they were assailed by the Persian cavalry under Masistius, who were repulsed after the Athenians had reinforced the Megareans, who were being hard pressed [olympiodorus], and Masistius had fallen. For the purpose of being better supplied with water, Pausanias now descended into the territory of Plataeae, and posted his army on the banks of a small stream, which Herodotus calls the Asopus, and which was probably one of its tributaries. Mardonius drew up his forces on the opposite bank of the stream. After a delay of ten days, during which the armies were kept inactive by the unfavourable reports of the soothsayers, Mardonius resolved to attack the Greeks. Information of his intention was conveyed by night to the Greeks by Alexander of Macedon. Accordingly, the next day the Persian cavalry made a vigorous attack upon the Greeks, and gained possession of the Gargaphian spring, on which the Greeks depended for their supply of water ; and as there seemed no likelihood of a general engagement that day, Pausanias, Avith the concurrence of the allied generals, resolved to remove nearer to Plataeae. This was done in the course of the ensuing night. On the following day the great battle of Plataeae took place. The Persian forces were speedily routed and their camp stormed, where a terrible carnage ensued. The Spartans were judged to have fought most bravely in the battle, and among them, according to Diodorus (xi. 33), Pausanias was selected as having acquitted himself most valiantly. But Herodotus makes no mention of his name in this connection. An Aeginetan urged Pausanias to revenge the mutilation of Leonidas, by impaling the corpse of Mardonius ; an advice which Pausanias rejected with abhorrence. Pausanias gave directions that all the spoil should be left to be collected by the Helots. Ten samples of all that was most valuable in this booty were presented to Pausanias. Herodotus has preserved a ston% that, to exhibit the contrast between their modes of living, Pausanias ordered the Persian slaves to prepare a banquet similar to what they commonly prepared for Mardonius, and then directed his Helots to place by the side of it a Laconian dinner ; and, laughing, bade the Greek generals observe the folly of the leader of the Mecles, who, while able to live in such