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PAULUS.

king of Macedonia ; but as the Roman commanders had hitherto failed to bring the contest to a con­clusion, the people demanded a general of greater experience arid abilities, and unanimously pressed Paulus to undertake the conduct of the war. At first he was not disposed to comply with their request, as he was upwards of sixty, and still remembered with bitterness their former rejection of him at the consular comitia. But he yielded at length to the general solicitation, and was accord­ingly elected consul a second time, b. c. 168, with C. Licinius Crassus. Age had not in the least impaired his vigour or his faculties. He arrived at Macedonia early in the summer of this year, and on the 22nd of June completely defeated the Macedonian monarch near Pydna. This battle de­cided the war, and Perseus shortly afterwards surrendered himself and was brought to Paulus, who treated him with great kindness and courtesy. A detailed account of this campaign is given under perseus. Paulus remained in Macedonia during the greater part of the following year as proconsul, and in the course of b. c. 167 he made a journey through Greece, in which he redressed many griev­ances of which the states complained, and made them various presents from the royal treasury. On his return to Macedonia he held a court at Amphipolis, where he arranged the affairs of Ma­cedonia, in conjunction with ten Roman commis­sioners, whom the senate had despatched for the purpose, and passed sentence upon the various parties that had espoused the cause of Perseus. He concluded the business by the celebration of most splendid games, for which preparations had been making a long time previously. But before leaving Greece, Paulus marched into Epeirus, where, in accordance with a cruel command of the senate, he gave to his soldiers seventy towns to be pillaged, because they had been in alliance with Perseus. He then straightway proceeded to Ori-cum, where he embarked his troops, and crossed over to Italy.

Aemilius Paulus arrived in Italy towards the close of b.c. 167. The booty which he brought with him from Macedonia, and which he paid into the Roman treasury, was of enormous value ; but the soldiers were indignant that they had obtained so small a share in the plunder ; and it was there­fore not without considerable opposition that he obtained his triumph. This triumph, which was celebrated at the end of November, b. c. 167, was the most splendid that Rome had yet seen ; it lasted three days, and is described at length by Plutarch. Before the triumphal car of Aemilius walked the captive monarch of Macedonia and his children, and behind it were his two illustrious sons, Q. Fabius Maximus and P. Scipio Africanus the younger, both of whom had been adopted into other families. But the glory of the conqueror was clouded by family misfortune. At this very time he lost his two younger sons ; one, twelve years of age, died only five days before his triumph, and the other, fourteen years of age, three da}rs only after his triumph. The loss was all the severer, since he had no other son left to carry his name down to posterity.

In b. c. 164 Paulus was censor with Q. Marcius Philippus, and died in b.c. 160, after a long and tedious illness. The fortune he left behind him was so small as scarcely to be sufficient to pay his wife's dowry. The "Adelphi" of Terence was brought

out at the funeral games exhibited in honour of Aemilius Paulus.

Aemilius Paulus was married twice. By his first wife, Papiria, the daughter of C. Papirius Maso, consul b. c. 231, he had four children, who are given in the preceding stemma. He after­wards divorced Papiria; and by his second wife, whose name is not mentioned, he had two sons, whose death has been mentioned above, and a daughter, who was a child at the time that her father was elected to his second consulship. [AE-mjlia, No. 3.] (Plutarch, Life of Aemilius Pau­lus ; Liv. xxxiv. 45, xxxv. 10, 24, xxxvi. 2, xxxvii. 46, 57, xxxix. 56, xl. 25—28, 34, xliv. 17—xlv. 41, Epit. 46 ; Polyb. xxix.—xxxii. ; Aur. Vict. de Vir. III. 56 ; Val. Max. v. 10. § 2 ; Veil. Pat. i. 9,10 ; Orelli, Onom. Tull. vol. ii. p. 16).

PAULUS, AVIDIE'NUS, a rhetorician men­tioned by the elder Seneca (Controv. 17).

PAULtfS CATE'NA, one of the ministers of the tyranny of the court under the emperor Constantius II. He was a native either of His-pania or Dacia (comp. Amm. Marc. xiv. 5, xv. 3), and held the office of notary. Ammianus de­scribes him as a " smooth-faced" sycophant, who being sent into Britain, after the overthrow ofMag-nentius, treated the officers of the province with great cruelty, and enriched himself with their spoils. His cruelty provoked Martinus, pro-praefect of the province, whom he had accused and thrown into fetters, to attempt his life ; but the blow did not take effect. Paulus acquired his cognomen Catena, " the fetter," from the skill with which he wound the chains of falsehood and calumny round hia victims. After the death of Constantius, a. d. 36 I, Paul and some other of the ministers of his cruelty were burnt alive by order of Julian the Apostate. (Amm. Marc. II. cc. and xxii. 3.) [J. C. M.]

PAULUS, JU'LIUS, the brother of Claudius Civilis, who was the leader of the Batavi in their revolt from Rome, a.d. 69—70. On a false charge of treason Julius Paulus had been pre­viously put to death by Nero's legate, Fonteiua Capito, in a. d. 67 or 68. (Tac. Hist. iv. 13, 32.)

[ClVILIS.]

PAULUS, JU'LIUS, one of the most distin­guished of the Roman jurists, has been supposed, without any good reason, to be of Greek origin, and from a Phoenician town. Others conjecture that he was a native of Patavium (Padua), because there is a statue there, with an inscription, Paulus ; but the statue and inscription may refer to another Paulus (Gellius, v. 4, xix. 7). Paulus was in the auditorium of Papinian (Dig. 29. tit. 2. s. 97; 49. tit. 14. s. 50), and consequently was acting as a jurist in the jo'nt reigns of Septimius Severus and Antoninus Caracalla, and also during the reign of Caracalla. Paulus was exiled by Elagabalus, but he was recalled by Alexander Severus when he became emperor, and was made a member of his consilium (Aurel. Vict. De Caes. xxiv. ; Lamprid. Alex. 25). Paulus also held the office of prae-fectus praetorio: he survived his contemporary Ulpian. In two passages of the Digest which have been already referred to, Paulus (Libro tertio De-cretorum) speaks of two cases in which he gave an opinion contrary to Papinian, but the emperor decided according to Papinian's opinion.

Paulus was perhaps the most fertile of all the Roman law writers, and there is more excerpted from him in the Digest than from any other jurist.

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