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worms and dracunculi. The fifth treats of the wounds and bites of venomous animals ; also of the distemper called hydrophobia, and of persons bitten by dogs which are mad, and by those which are not mad ; and also of persons bitten by men. Afterwards it treats of deleterious substances, and of the preservatives from them. In the sixth book is contained every thing relating to surgery, both what relates to the fleshy parts, such as the extraction of weapons, and to the bones, which comprehends fractures and dislocations. In the seventh is contained an account of the properties of all medicines, first of the simple, then of the compound, particularly of those which I had mentioned in the preceding six books, and more especially the greater, and, as it were, celebrated preparations ; for I did not think it proper to treat of all these articles promiscuously, lest it should occasion confusion, but so that any person looking for one or more of the distinguished preparations might easily find it. Towards the end are certain things connected with the composition of medicines, and of those articles which may be substituted for one another, the whole concluding with an account of weights and measures." (Adams's Translation.) Of these books the sixth is the most valuable and interesting, and contains at the same time the most original matter. His reputation among the Arabians seems to have been very great, and it is said that he was especially consulted by rnidwives, whence he received the name of
Al-hiwabeli) or " the Accoucheur.*'
(Abu-1- Fa raj, I. c.) He is said .by the Arabic authorities to have written a work, " De Muli-erum Morbis," and another, " De Puerulorum Vivendi Ratione atque Curatione." His great work* was translated into Arabic by Honain Ibn Ishak, commonly called Joannitius. (See J. G. Wenrich,Z>e Auctor. Graecor. Version, et Comment. Syriac. Arab. Armen. et Pers., Lips. 8vo. 1842.) An account of the medical opinions of Paulus Aegineta may be found in Haller's Biblioth. Chirurg. vol. i., and Biblioth. Medic. Pract. vol. i. ; in SprengePs Hist, de la Mid. vol. ii. ; and especially in Freind's Hist, of Physic* vol. i. The Greek text has been twice published, Venet. 1528, fol. and Basil. 1538, fol. There are three Latin translations, which were published altogether nearly twenty times in the sixteenth century : 1. that by Albanus Torinus, Basil. 1532, fol. ; 2. that by J. Guinterius Andernacus, Paris. 1532, fol. ; and 3. that by Janus Cornarius, Basil. 1556, fol., which last translation is inserted by H. Stephens in his "Medicae Artis Principes," Paris. 1567, fol. Separate editions have appeared in Latin of the first, second, sixth, and seventh books ; and the sixth
* This work is said by Abu-1-Faraj (/. c.) to have consisted of nine books, a statement which is explained by Fabricius and others, by supposing that the seventh book, and either the third or sixth, which are longer than the others, were divided by the Arabians into two ; but perhaps a more natural way of accounting for the statement
is to consider
" nine" a mere clerical
error for +-*+* "seven" the two words being
(with the exception of the diacritical points) almost exactly alike.
book has also been translated into French by Pierre Tolet, Lyons, 1539, 12mo. The whole work has been translated into English bv Francis Adams, of
O */ 7
Banchory Ternan, near Aberdeen, with a very copious and learned commentary, intended to fur nish " a complete manual of the Surgery and Medicine of the Ancients, with a brief but com prehensive outline of the sciences intimately con nected with them, especially Physiology, the Materia Medica, and Pharmacy." The first volume was published at London, 8vo, 1834, but this edition was never finished; of the second and improved edition, the first volume appeared in 1844, the second in 1846, and the third and last is expected to appear in the course of the present year, 1847, London, 8vo, "printed for the Syden- ham Society." (Choulant, Handb* der B'iicherltunde fur die Aeltere Median.) [W. A. G.]
PAULUS, AEMI'LIUS. The annexed stemma exhibits all the persons of this name descended from the consul of b. c. 302. The only two sons that Paulus Macedonicus left were adopted into other gentes, and the family-name in consequence perished with him. It was, however, revived at a later period in the family of the Lepidi, who belonged to the same gens, and was first borne by L. Aemilius Paulus, the brother of the triumvir ; but as this Aemilius arid his descendants belonged to the family of the Lepidi, and not to that of the Pauli, they are inserted under the former head. [lepidus, Nos. 16, 19, 22.]
1. M. aemilius L. f. paulus, consul b. c. 302 with M. Livius Denter, defeated near Thuriae the Lacedemonian Cleonymus, who was ravaging the coast of Italy with a Greek fleet. In the following year, b. c. 301, in which year there were no consuls, Paulus was magister equitum to the dictator Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus. While the dictator went to Rome for the purpose of renewing the auspices, Aemilius was defeated in battle by the Etruscans. (Liv. x. 1—3.)
2. M. aemilius M. f. L. n. paulus, son of the preceding, was consul b. c. 255 with Ser. Ful-vius Paetinus Nobilior, about the middle of the first Punic war. The history of the expedition of these consuls to Africa, and of their shipwreck on their return, is given under nobilior, No. 1.
3. L. aemilius M. f. M. n. paulus, son of No. 2, was consul the first time, b. c. 219, with M. Livius Salinator. He was' sent against the Illyrians, who had risen again in arms under Demetrius of the island of Pharos in the Adriatic. Paulus conquered him without any difficulty : he took Pharos, reduced the strong-holds of Demetrius, and compelled the latter to fly for refuge to Philip, king of Macedonia. For these services Paulus obtained a triumph on his return to Rome ; but he was notwithstanding brought to trial along with his colleague M. Livius Salinator, on the plea that they had not fairly divided the booty among the soldiers. Salinator was condemned, and Paulus escaped with difficult}". (Polyb. iii. 16—19, iv. 37 ; Appian, Illyr. 8 ; Zonar. viii. 20 ; Liv. xxii. 35.) [demetrius, pp. 965, b., 966, a.]
In b. c. 216 Aemilius Paulus was consul a second time with C. Terentius Varro. This was the year of the memorable defeat at Cannae. [hannibal, p. 336.] The battle was fought against the advice of Paulus ; and he was one of the many distinguished Romans who perished in the engagement, refusing to fly from the field, when a tribune