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PAULUS.

tions or notices are found in Origen ( Tom. XXJ. in Joan., De Prindpiis, i. 2), Eusebius (//. E. iii. 3, 25), and Philastrius (Haeres. Ixxxvii.). This work, which is lost, must not be confounded with No. 2. 2. 'H TrepfoSos Hav\ov ko.i QeKAas, Periodus Pauli et Theclae. This work is mentioned by Ter-tullian (De Baptismo, c. 17), and by Jerome (De Viris Illustr. c. 7). It was written, according to the former (/. c.}, by a certain presbyter of Asia, who, when convicted of the forgery, acknowledged the act, and said that he had done it out of love to the Apostle. He was deposed from his office. Jerome (/. c.), citing this passage from Tertullian, adds, as if upon his authority, that the presbyter was convicted of the forgery before John (whether the Evangelist or the Elder, is not clear), which carries back the forgery almost, if not quite, to the Apostolic age. The work has perished. Whether there was such a person as Thecla, and whether she was connected with the Apostle Paul, has been disputed. Baro-nius and Grabe contend that there was ; Stilling, in the Ada Sanctorum, Sept. vol. vi. p. 550, thinks that there is some truth in what is said of her ; but Ittigius (De Bibliotft. Pairum, p. 702) regards the whole story as a fable. She is mentioned by se­veral of the principal fathers of the fourth century, Epiphanius, Gregory Nazianzen, Gregory Nyssen, Chrysostom, Isidore of Pehisium, &c. In the fifth century, Basil of Seleuceia [basilius, No. 4] wrote a metrical history of Thecla (Phot. Blbl. Cod. 16'8), and Symeon Metaphrastes, at a later period, wrote her life. This latter biography, with another to which the name of Basil of Seleuceia was prefixed, (but with very doubtful propriety, for it was not written in metre,like the one mentioned by Photius), were published in the original Greek, with a Latin version by Petrus Pantinus, 4to. Antwerp, 1608. Grabe inserted in the first volume of his Spicilegium SS. Patrum, pp. 95, &c., a history of Thecla, en­titled Maprvpiov ttjs dyias koi eJ>5o£ou Trpooro/^dp-Tvpos Kai diro(TT6Xov ©e/cXas, Martyrium sanctae et gloriosae Proto-Martyris et Apostolatu defunctae Virginis Thedae, and which he regarded as the very work to which the presbyter of Asia had prefixed the name of Paul. Grabe, however, was probably mistaken: the narrative makes no profession of being written by Paul, and there is no trace of an absurd story of the baptism of a lion ("baptismi leonis fabulam "), which Jerome expressly mentions as contained in the presbyter's narrative. The work is, however, of considerable antiquity, and probably furnished materials for the two biographies published by Pantinus. The Martyrium, as pub­lished by Grabe, was incomplete, having been taken from a mutilated MS., and a considerable supplementary passage was published by Hearne, in his appendix to Leland's Collectanea. The Mar­tyrium, thus completed, was reprinted by Galland, in the first volume of his Bibliotheca Patrum, p. 167, &c. (Grabe, Spidlegium, vol. i. p. 8], &c. Ada Sanctor. 1. c. ) 3. S. Pauli Praedicatio, perhaps re­ferred to by Clement of Alexandria (Strom. lib. vi.), certainly mentioned by the anonymous author of an ancient tract, De non iterando Baptismo Haere-ticorum (Fabric. Cod. Apocryph. N. T. vol. ii. p. 799'). It is not extant. 3. Upds AaoSuceas tiriaroXri, Ad Laodicenses Epistola. This epistle, the forgery of which is ascribed by some ancient writers to the Manichaeans, has been printed several times: in the Polyglot Bible of Elias Hutter, fol. Nurem­berg, 1599 ; in the Philologus Hebraeo-Graecus of

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PAULUS.

Leusden, 4to. Utrecht, 1670 ; in the Codex Apo-cryphus Novi Testamcnti of Fabricius, and elsewhere. 4. Epistolae Pauli ad Senecam et Senecae ad Paulum, mentioned by Jerome (De Viris Illustr. c. 12) and Augustin (Eputol. ad Macedonian, 54, editt. vett, 153, edit. Benedictin.). These letters (five from Paul and eight from Seneca) are given in various editions of the works of Seneca ; also by Sixtus Senensis, in his Bibliotheca Sancta, and by Fabricius, in his Codex Apocryphus N. T. 5. *A*/a-SariKov TlavXov, Anabaticum Pauli, forged by the heretics whom Epiphanius calls Caiani, but used also by the Gnostics (Epiphan. Haeres. xviii. c. 38). The book was founded on a passage in the genuine writings of the Apostle (2 Cor. xii. 4), in which he speaks of being caught up into the third heaven. It is now lost. 6. Apocalypsis Pauli, apparently different from No. 5 ; mentioned by Augustin (Tractat. XC\TIII. in Joan.\ Sozomen (H. E. vii. 19), Theophylact, and Oecumenius (Not. ad 2 Cor. xii. 4). It was said to have been found in Paul's house in Tarsus : but Sozomen found, on inquiry, that this story was untrue. 7. An Epistola Pauli ad Corinthios, different from the genuine epistles, and an Epistola Corinthiorum ad Paulum, are said to be extant in the Armenian language ; and other epistles ascribed to the same Apostle are said to be extant in the Arabic. The Marcionites are said to have ascribed to Paul the gospel (formed from that of Luke) which was received among them. (Cave, Hist. Lift, vol. i. p. 12, ed. Oxford, 1740—43; Fabric. Cod. Apocryphus N. T.; Vossius, De His-toricis Graecis, lib. ii. c. 9.)

5. Of constantinople (1). On the death of Alexander, patriarch of Constantinople (a. d. 336), Paul, one of the presbyters of that church, and comparatively a young man, was chosen to succeed him by the Homoousian or orthodox party, while the Arians were anxious for the election of the deacon Macedonius, who sought to prevent the election of Paul by some charge of misconduct, which, however, he did not persist in. Both men appear to have been previously marked out for the succession by their respective partizans ; and Alex­ander had, before his death, passed a judgment on their respective characters, which is given elsewhere [macedonius, No. 3]. The Homoousians had carried their point ; but the election was annulled by a council summoned by the emperor, either Con-stantine the Great, or his son Constantius II., and Paul being ejected, was banished into Pontus (Athanas. Histor. Arianor. ad Monachal, c. 7), and Eusebius, bishop of Nicomedeia, was appointed by the council in his room. On the death of Eusebius, who died A. d. 342, the orthodox populace of Constantinople restored Paul, who appears to have been previously released from banishment, or to have escaped to Rome ; while the bishops of the Arian party elected Maceionius. The emperor Con­stantius II. being absent, the contest led to many disturbances, in which a number of people were killed ; and an attempt by Hermogenes, magister militum, to quell the riot and expel Paul, led to the murder of that officer by the mob. The emperor immediately returned to Constantinople, and ex­pelled Paul, without, however, as yet confirming the election of Macedonius. Paul hastened back to Rome and sought the support of Julius I., bishop of that city, who, glad to exercise the superiority im­plied in this appeal to him, sent him back with a letter to the bishops of the Eastern Churches, directing that

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