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PATROCLUS.

\vas of the same state. Thiersch (Epoclien^ p. 125) suggests the ingenious, but unfounded idea, that he was the same person as Patrocles, the half-brother of Socrates on the mother's side: surety, if so, he would not have employed his art in celebrating the ruin of his own city ! It is more probable that he was one and the same person with the following artist:—

2. Of Croton, a statuary, son of Catiilus, made the statue of Apollo of box-wood, with a gilded head, which the Epizephyrian Locrians dedicated at Olympia (Pans. vi. 19. § 3). [P. S.j

PATROCLUS (UdrpoKXos or UarpoK^s). 1. A son of Heracles by Pyrippe. (Apollod. ii. 7. §8.)

2. The celebrated friend of Achilles, was a son of-Menoetius of Opus (Horn. //. xi. 608 ; Ov. Her. i. 17), and a grandson of Actor and Aegina, whence he is called Actorides. (Ov. Met. xiii. 273.) His mother is commonly called Sthenele, but some mention her under the name of Periapis or Polymele. (Hygin. Fab. 91 ; Eustath. ad Horn. p. 1498.) Aeacus, the grandfather of Achilles, was a brother of Menoetius (Horn. //. xvi. 14), and, according to Hesiod (ap. Eustath. ad Horn. p. 112), Menoetius was a brother of Peleus, so that the friendship between Achilles and Patroclus arose from their being kinsmen.

When yet a boy Patroclus, during a game of "dice, involuntarily slew Clysonymus, a son of Amphidamas, and in consequence of this accident Patroclus was taken by his father to Peleus at Phthia, where he was educated together with Achilles. (Horn. II. xxiii. 85, &c.; Apoilod. iii. 13. § 8 ; Ov. Ep. ex Pont. i. 3. 73.) He is also mentioned among the suitors of Helen. (Apollod. iii. 10. § 8.) He is said to hare taken part in the expedition against Troy on account of his attach­ment to Achilles. (Hygin. Fab. 257 ; Philostr. Her. 19. 9.) On their voyage thither, the Greeks plundered in Mysia the territory of Tele-phus, but were repelled, and on their flight to their ships they were protected by Patroclus and Achilles. (Pind. Ol. ix. 105, &c.) During the war against Troy he took an active part in the struggle, until his friend withdrew from the scene of action, when Patroclus followed his example. (Horn. II. ix. 190.) But when the Greeks were hard pressed, and many of their heroes were wounded, he begged Achilles to allow him to put on his (Achilles') armour, and with his men to hasten to the assistance of the Greeks (xvi. 20, &c.). Achilles granted the request, and Patroclus succeeded in driving back the Trojans and extin­guishing the fire which was raging among the ships (xvi. 293). He slew many enemies, and thrice made an assault upon the walls of Troy (xvi. 293, &c., 702, 785) ; but on a sudden he was struck by Apollo, and became senseless. In this state Euphorbus ran him through with his lance from behind, and Hector gave him the last and fatal blow (xvi. 791, &c.). Hector also took possession of his armour (xvii. 122). A long struggle now ensued between the Greeks and Trojans about the body of Patroclus ; but the former obtained possession of it, and when it was brought to Achilles, he was deeply grieved, and vowed to avenge the death of his friend (xvii. 735, xyiii. 22). Thetis protected the body with ambrosia against decomposition, until Achilles had leisure solemnly to burn it with funeral sacri-

PATRON.

fices (xix. 38). His ashes were collected in a golden urn which Dionysus had once given to Thetis, and were deposited under a mound, where subsequently the remains of Achilles also were buried (xxiii. 83, 92, 126, 240, &c., Od. xxiv. 74, &c. ; Tzetz. ad Lye. 273). Funeral games were celebrated in his honour. (II. xxiii. 262, &c.) Achilles and Patroclus met again in the lower world (Od. xxiv. 15), or, according to others, they continued after their death to live together in the island of Leuce. (Paus. iii. 19. § 11.) Patro­ clus was represented by Polygnotus in the Lesche at Delphi (Paus. x. 26. § 2, 30. § 1) ; and on Cape Sigeum in Troas, where his tomb was shown, he was worshipped as a hero. (Horn. Od. xxiv. 82 ; Strab. xiii. p. 596.) [L. S.]

PATROCLUS (narpo/cAos), an officer in the service of Ptolemy Philadelphus, who commanded the fleet sent by that monarch to the assistance of the Athenians against Antigonus Gonatas (b. c. 366). He appears to have been unable to make himself master of any of the ports of Athens, ,and established his naval station at a small island near the promontory of Sunium, which ever after bore his name. (Paus. i. 1. § 1, 35. § 1 ; Strab. ix. p. 398.) He urged Areus, king of Sparta, to make a diversion by attacking Antigonus on the land side, and it was probably on the failure of this attempt that he withdrew from the coast of Attica. We subsequently find him commanding the fleet of Ptolemy on the coast of Caria. (Paus. iii. 6. § 4—6 ; Athen. xiv. p. 621 a.; Droysen, Hellen­ ism, vol. ii. pp. 211, 219, 245.) [E. H. B.]

PATRON (Harpwv), historical. 1. A native of Phocis (Arrian, iii. 16. § 2, where he is called Paron), commander of the Greek mercenaries, who accompanied Dareius on his flight after the battle of Gaugamela. When Bessus and his accomplices were conspiring against Dareius, Patron and the other Greeks remained faithful to him ; and Patron having discovered the designs of the conspirators, disclosed to the king the danger he was in, and besought him to take refuge in the camp of the Greek soldiers, but Dareius declined his offer. (Q. Curt. v. 9. § 14, 11. § 1, 8, 12. § 4.)

2. A native of Lilaea in Phocis. The town having been captured by Philippus, the son of Demetrius, Patron induced the youth of the city to join him in an attack upon the Macedonian gar­rison, which was successful. The inhabitants of the town, in gratitude for this service, set up a statue of Patron at Delphi. (Paus. x. 33. § 3 ; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. iii. p. 608.) [C. P. M.]

PATRON, a philosopher of the Epicurean school. He lived for some time in Rome, where he became acquainted, amongst others, with Cicero, and with the family of C. Memmius. Either now, or subsequently, he also gained the friendship of Atticus. From Rome he either removed or re­turned to Athens, and there succeeded Phaedrus as president of the Epicurean school, b.c. 52. C. Memmius had, while in Athens, procured per­mission from the court of Areiopagus to pull down an old wall belonging to the property left by Epi­curus for the use of his school. This was regarded by Patron as a sort of desecration, and he accord­ingly addressed himself to Atticus and Cicero, to induce them to use their influence with the Areio­pagus to get the decree rescinded. Attiqiis also wrote to Cicero on the subject, which he look up very warmly. Cicero arrived at Athens tfte day

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