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PANTAUCHUS.

In do-Caucasian provinces south of the Paropa- misus, known only from his coins. From these it appears probable that he was the successor of Aga- thocles, and his reign is referred by Professor Wil­ son to about b.c. 120 (Ariana,p. 300) ;but Lassen would assign it to a much earlier period. (Lassen, Zur Gesch. d. Griechischen Konigen v. Baktrien, pp. 192, 263.) The coins of these two kings, Agathocles and Pantaleon, are remarkable as bear­ ing inscriptions both in the Greek and in Sanscrit characters. [E. H. B.]

PANTALEON (ITavraAeW), literary. 1. A writer on culinary subjects, mentioned by Pollux (vi. 70), where the old reading, TLai/To\€uv9 is un­doubtedly inaccurate.

2. A Constantinopolitan deacon and charto- phylax, who probably lived in the middle of the thirteenth century. Several works of his, prin­ cipally sermons, have been published, both in the original Greek, and in Latin, for which consult Fabricius, Bill. Graec. vol. x. pp. 199, 242, 247, 258, vol. xi. p. 455, and Cave, Hist. Lit. vol. ii. Diss. p. 15. [W. M. G.]

PANTALEON, ST. (nai/raAeW), or PAN- TOLEON (Ilaj/ToAeW), or PANTELEEMON (nayTeAeTf/xcor/), a physician of Nicomedia in Bi- thynia, in the third century after Christ, the son of Eustorgius, a person of wealth and consequence, but strongly devoted to paganism. His mother, whose name was Eubula, was a zealous Christian, and educated him in the Christian faith ; she died, however, while he was yet young, and he was in danger of relapsing into paganism. After receiving a good preliminary education, he studied medicine under a physician named Euphrosynus, and by his engaging manners and good conduct attracted the notice of the Emperor Maximian, so that he was intended for the post of one of the royal physicians. About this time he became acquainted with an aged Christian priest, named Hermolaus, by whom he was confirmed in his attachment to the Christian faith, and shortly after baptized. He then endea­ voured to convert his father from paganism, in which attempt he at last succeeded. He made himself an object of dislike and envy to the other physicians by the number of cures he effected, and was at last denounced to the emperor as a Chris­ tian. After being in vain tempted to embrace paganism, and suffering many tortures (from some of which he is said to have been miraculously deli­ vered), he was at last beheaded, probably a. d. 303. The name of Pantelecmon was given him on account of his praying for his murderers. His memory is celebrated in the Romish church on July 27. A very interesting account of his life and martyrdom is given in the " Acta Sanctorum" (Jul. 27. vol. vi. p. 397), taken chiefly from Simeon Metaphrastes. (See Bzovius, Nomenclator Sandor. Professione Medicor. ; C. B. Carpzovius, De Me- dicis ab Eccles. pro Sanctis habitis, and the authors there referred to.) [W. A. G.]

PANTAUCHUS (ndvTavXos). 1. A Mace­donian of Alorus, son of Nicolaus, an officer in the service of Alexander, was one of those appointed to the command of a trireme on the descent of the Indus, b. c. 327. (Arr. Ind. 18.) Though this is the only occasion during the wars of that monarch on which his name is mentioned, yet we are told that he had earned a great reputation both for ability as a commander and for his personal strength and prowess. These qualities obtained for him a

PANTULEIUS.

high place among the generals of Demetrius Poli-orcetes, who in B. c. 289 left him with a large force to hold possession of Aetolia against Pyrrhus. On the approach of that monarch? Pantauchus hastened to meet him, and give him battle, when a single combat ensued between the young king and the veteran officer, in which the former was victorious. Pantauchus was carried off the field severely wounded, and his army was totally routed. Whe­ther or not he died of his wounds we know not, but his name is not again mentioned. (Plut. Pyrrh. 7, Demetr. 41.)

2. Son of Balacrus, one of the chief friends and counsellors of Perseus, king of Macedonia, by whom we find him employed on various important confi­ dential occasions. Thus in b.c. 171 he was one of the hostages given by the king during his confer­ ence with the Roman deputy Q. Marcius, and subsequently one of the ambassadors sent to P. Licinius Crassus with proposals for peace: and three years later (b.c. 168) he was despatched to Gentius, king of Illyria, to secure the adherence of that monarch, at whose court he remained for some time, stimulating him to acts of open hos­ tility against Rome, and urging him to throw his whole power into the contest in favour of Perseus. (Polyb. xxvii. 8, xxix. 2, 3 ; Liv. xlii. 39, xliv. 23.) [E. H. B.] PANTELEE'MON. [pantaleon.] PANTE'LEUS (Ilaz/Te'Aeos), the author of nine verses in the Greek Anthology, the first two of which stand in the Vatican MS. as an epigram on Callimachus and Cynageirus, the well-known leaders of the Athenians at the battle of Marathon (Brunck, Ancd. vol. ii. p. 404, A nth. Pal. App. No. 58). There can be no doubt that the lines are a fragment of an heroic poem on the battle of Marathon, or the Persian war in general; but we have no indication of the author's age. (See Jacobs, Comment, in Anth. Graec. vol. ii. pt. 3, p. 193, vol. iii. pt. 3, p. 929 ; Vossius, de Hist. Graec. p. 480, ed. Westermann; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. iv. p. 486.) [P. S.] PANTHEIA. [abradatas.] PANTHOEDUS (IIaj/0<n5os), a dialectic phi­ losopher about B. c. 270, who wrote a treatise, treoi <jHgoAi«i/, which was attacked by Chrysippus. He was the preceptor of Lycon, the peripatetic philosopher. (Diog. Laert. v. 68, vii. 193.)

[W. M. G.]

PANTHOUS (n6.vQoos\ one of the elders at Troy, was married to Phrontis, and the father of Euphorbus, Polydamas, and Hyperenor. (Horn. //. iii. 146, xiv. 450, xvii. 24,40, 81.) Virgil (Aen. ii. 319) makes him a son of Othrys, and a priest of Apollo, a dignity to which, according to Servius on this passage, he was raised by Priam ; origi­ nally he was a Delphian, and had been carried to Troy by Antenor, on account of his beauty. (Comp. Lucian, Gall. 17.) [L. S.]

PANTIAS (Haj/Tiay), of Chios, a statuary of the school of Sicyon, who is only mentioned as the maker of some statues of athletes. He was in­ structed in his art by his father, Sostratus, who was the seventh in the succession of disciples from Aristocles of Cydonia : Pantias, therefore, flourished probably about b. c. 420—388. (Paus. vi. 3. § 1, 9. § 1, 14. § 3 ; Thiersch, EpocTien, pp. 143, 278, 282 ; aristocles.) [P. S.] PANTO'LEON. [pantaleon.] PANTULEIUS, A., a sculptor, who lived in

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