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PANAEUS, the engraver of a gem in the royal collection at Paris. (Clarac, p. 421.) [P. S.]
PANARES (TlavdpK\s\ a Cretan, who together with Lasthenes was one of the leaders of his coun trymen in their resistance to the Roman arms. [lasthenes, No. 3]. After the defeat of their united forces near Cydonia, Panares, who had taken refuge in that city, surrendered it to the Roman general, Q. Metellus, on condition that his life should be spared. (Diod. Exc. Leg. xl. p. 632 ; Appian. Sic. 6 ; Dion Cass. xxxvi. 2 ; Veil. Pat. ii. 34). [E. H. B.]
PANARETUS (Havaperos), a pupil of Arcesi- laus, the founder of the new Academy. He was noted for the excessive slightness of his person. He was intimate with Ptolemy Eiiergetes (about b. c. 230), from whom he is said to have received twelve talents yearly. (Fabric. Bibl. Grace, vol. iii. p. 181 ; Athen. xii. p. 552, c.; Aelian, H. V. x. 6.) [W. M. G.]
PANARETUS, MATTHAEUS. [mat-
THAEUS, No. 1.]
PANCRATES and PANCRA'TIUS (Uay-KparTjy, Ilcry/cpcmos) ; these names are so much mixed up together by the ancient writers, that it is best to place under one head the few notices which we have respecting them.
1. An epigrammatic poet, who had a place in the Garland of Meleager, and three of whose epigrams are preserved in the Greek Anthology. (Brunck, Anal. vol. i. p. 259 ; Jacobs, Antft. Graec. vol. i. p. 191.) We have no other indication of his time than that afforded by his being in Mele-ager's collection, which shows that he lived in or before the first century of our era. Some writers identify him with the following poet: —
2. A poet or musician, who appears to have been eminent in his art, by the notice of him in Plutarch, who says that " he usually avoided the chromatic genus of music, not through ignorance of it, but from choice, and imitated, as he himself said, the style of Pindar and Simonides, and in a word that which is called the ancient by those of the present day." (De Mus. 20, p. 1137, e.) This notice seems to imply that Pancrates lived either at or just before the time of Plutarch, but whether he was simply a musician, or a lyric poet, or a tragedian, the context leaves us altogether in doubt.
3. Of Arcadia, the author of a poem on fishery (d\i€VTiKa or frahdcrffia. e/rya), a considerable fragment of which is preserved by Athenaeus. (Ath. i. p. 13, b., vii. pp. 283, a. c., 305, c., 321, f.) Several critics imagine him to be identical with one or both of the two preceding poets. (See Burette, in the Mem. de rAcad. des Inscr. vol. xix. p. 441.) Athenaeus quotes two lines, in elegiac metre, from the first book of the Koyxoprfis of Pancrates, whom the subject of the poem and the simple mention of the name in Athenaeus would lead us to identify with the author of the dAteim/m, while the metre suggests the probability that he was also the same as the epigrammatist.
4. An Alexandrian poet in the time of Hadrian, who, in acknowledgment of a curious discovery with which Pancrates made him acquainted in such a manner as to involve a compliment to himself and Antinous, gave him his maintenance in the Museum of Alexandria. (Ath. xv. p. 677, d. e.)
5. Of Athens, a cynic philosopher in the time of Hadrian and the Antonines. Philostratus re-
lates, that when Lollianus was in danger of being stoned by the Athenians in a tumult about bread, Pancrates quieted the mob by exclaiming that Lollianus was not an dproTrcaXys but a XoyoirooX-ns (Philostr. Vit. Sophist, p. 526 ; lollianus). Alci-phron also mentions a cynic philosopher of this name (iii. 55. p. 406).
6. A sophist and rhetorician, who wrote a commentary (viro^vrj/uLa) on the rex^ prjropiKr) of Minucianus. (Suid. s. v. ; Eudoc. p. 353.) [P. S.]
PANCRATIS (TlayKpdns or HayKpa-rd), a daughter of Aloeus and Iphimedeia, in the Phthio-tian Achaia. Once when Thracian pirates, under Butes, invaded that district, they carried off from Mount Drius the women who were solemnizing a festival of Dionysus. Among them was Iphimedeia and her daughter Pancratis. They were carried to Strongyle or Naxos, where king Agas-samenus made Pancratis his wife, after the two chiefs of the pirates, Sicelus and Hecetorus (or Scellis and Cassamenus), who were likewise in love with her, had killed each other. Otus and Ephialtes, the brothers of Pancratis, in the meantime came to Strongyle to liberate their mother and sister. They gained the victory, but Pancratis died. (Diod. v. 50, &c. ; Parthen. Erot. 19.) [L.S.]
PANDAREOS (UavUpws\ a son of Merops of Miletus, is said to have stolen the golden dog which Hephaestus had made, from the temple of Zeus in Crete, and to have carried it to Tantalus. When Zeus sent Hermes to Tantalus to claim the dog back, Tantalus declared that it was not in his possession. The god, however, took the animal by force, and threw mount Sipylus upon Tantalus. Pandareos fled to Athens, and thence to Sicily, where he perished with his wife Harmothoe. (Eustath. ad Horn. p. 1875 ; comp. tantalus.) Antoninus Liberalis (11) calls him an Ephesian, and relates that Demeter conferred upon him the benefit of never suffering from indigestion, if he should take ever so much food. The whole scene of his story lies in Crete, and hence Pausanias (x. 30. § 1) thinks that the town of Ephesus is not the famous city in Asia Minor, but Ephesus in Crete. The story of Pandareos derives more in terest from that of his three daughters. Aedon, the eldest of them, was married to Zethus, the brother of Amphion, by whom she was the mother of Itylus. From envy of Amphion, who had many children, she determinexi to mur^tr one of his sons, Amaleus, but in the night she mistook her own son for her nephew, and killed him. Some add, that she killed her own son after Amaleus, from fear of the vengeance of her sister-in-law, Niobe. (Eustath. ad Horn. p. 1875.) The two other daughters of Pandareos, Merope and Cleodora (ac cording to Pausanias, Cameira and Clytia), were, according to Homer, deprived of their parents by the gods, and remained as helpless orphans in the palace. Aphrodite, however, fed them with milk, honey, and wine. Hera gave them beauty and understanding far above other women. Artemis gave them dignity, and Athena skill in the arts. When Aphrodite went up to Olympus to arrange the nuptials for her maidens, they were carried off by the Harpies. (Horn. Od. xx. 67, &c., xix. 518, &c.) Polygnotus painted them in the Lesche of Delphi in the act of playing at dice, and adorned with wreaths of flowers. [Ll S.]