Scanned text contains errors.
nymphs. (Pans. ii. 24. § 7 ; Anthol. Palat. vi. 154.) The various epithets which are given him by the poets refer either to his singular appearance, or are derived from the names of the places in which he was worshipped. Sanctuaries and temples of this god are frequently mentioned, especially in Arcadia, as at Heraea, on the Nomian hill near Ly-cosura, on mount Parthenius (Pans. viii. 26. § 2, 38. § 8, 54. § 5), at Megalopolis (viii. 30. § 2, iii. 31. § 1), near Acacesium, where a perpetual fire was burning in his temple, and where at the same time there was an ancient oracle, at which the nymph Erato had been his priestess (viii. 37. § 8, &c.), at Troezene (ii. 32. § 5), on the well of Eresinus, between Argos and Tegea (ii. 24. § 7), at Sicyon (ii. 10. § 2), at Oropus (i. 34. § 2), at Athens (i. 28. § 4 ; Herod, vi. 105), near Marathon (i. 32. in fin.), in the island of Psyttaleia (i. 36. § 2 ; Aeschyl. Pers. 448), in the Corycian grotto near mount Parnassus (x. 32. § 5), and at Homala in Thessaly. (Theocrit. vii. 103.)
The Romans identified with Pan their own god Inuus, and sometimes also Faunus. Respecting the plural (Panes) or beings with goat's feet, see satyri. In works of art Pan is represented as a voluptuous and sensual being, with horns, puck-nose, and goat's feet, sometimes in the act of dancing, and sometimes playing on the syrinx. (Hirt, MytlioL Bilderb. ii. p. 161, &c.) [L. S.]
PANACEIA (TlavdKtta), i.e. " the all-healing," a daughter of Asclepius, who had a temple at Oro pus. (Paus. i, 34. § 2 ; Aristoph. Plut. 702, with the Schol.) [L. S.]
PANAENUS (Udvaivos), a distinguished Athenian painter, who flourished, according to Pliny, in the 83rd Olympiad, b. c. 448 (H. N. xxxv. 8. s. 4). He was the nephew of Pheidias (o5eA<pj5ous, Strab. viii. p. 354 ; aSeA^oy, Paus. v. 11. § 2 ; frater, i. e. frater patrueiis, Plin. L c. and xxxvi. 23. s. 55), whom he assisted in decorating the temple of Zeus, at Olympia ; and it is said to have been in answer to a question of his that Pheidias made his celebrated declaration that Homer's de-> scription of the nod of Zeus (II. i. 528) gave him the idea of his statue of the god. With regard to the works of Panaenus in the temple at Olympia, Strabo (/. c.) tells us that he assisted Pheidias in the execution of his statue of Zeus, by ornamenting it with colours, and especially the drapery ; and that many admirable paintings of his were shown around the temple (irept t<> tepoV), by which, as Bb'ttiger has pointed out (Arch. d. Malerei, p 245), we must understand the paintings on the sides of the elevated base of the statue, which are described by Pausanias (v. 11). This author tells us that the sides of the front of this base were simply painted dark blue, but that the other sides were adorned with paintings of Panaenus, which represented the following subjects :—Atlas sustaining heaven and earth, with Heracles standing by, read}' to relieve him of the burden ; Theseus and Peiri-thoiis ; Hellas and Salamis, the latter holding in her hand the ornamented prow of a ship; the contest of Heracles with the Nemean lion ; Ajax insulting Cassandra ; Hippodameia, the daughter of Oenomaus, with her mother; Prometheus, still
Another great work by Panaenus was his painting of the battle of Marathon, in the Poe-cile at Athens (Paus. I. c.) ; respecting which Pliny says that the use of colours had advanced so far, and the art had been brought to such perfection, that Panaenus was said to have introduced portraits of the generals (iconicos duces), namely, Miltiades, Callimachus, and Cynaegeirus, on the side of the Athenians, and Datis and Ar-taphernes, on that of the barbarians (If. N. xxxv. 8. s. 34). Pausanias gives a fuller description of this picture, but without mentioning the artist's name (i. 15). He says that the last of the paintings in the Poecile represented those who fought at Marathon : " the Athenians, assisted by the Pla-taeans, join battle with the barbarians ; and in this part (of the picture) both parties maintain an equality in the conflict ; but, further on in the battle, the barbarians are fleeing, and pushing one another into the marsh : but last in the painting are the Phoenicians' ships, and the Greeks slaying the barbarians as they rush on board of them. There also is painted the hero Marathon, from whom the plain is named, and Theseus, like one ascending out of the earth, and Athena and Heracles." He then mentions the polemarch Callimachus, Miltiades, and the hero Echetlus, as the most conspicuous persons in the battle.
Bottiger (Arch. d. Malerei, p. 249) infers from this description, compared with Himerius (Orat. x. p. 564, Wernsdorf), that the picture was in four compartments, representing separate periods of the battle: in the first, nearest the land, appear Marathon and Theseus, Heracles and Athena ; in the next the battle is joined, Miltiades is conspicuous as the leader of the Athenians, and neither, party has yet the advantage ; in the third we have the rout of the Persians, with the polemarch Callimachus still fighting, but perhaps receiving his deathblow (tto\€uovvti ^uaAAoj/ coikus rj Teflvewr/, Himer.; comp. Herod, vi. 14) ; and here, too, Bottiger places the hero Echetlus, slaying the flying enemies with his ploughshare: in the fourth the final contest at the ships ; and here was undoubtedly the portrait of Cynaegeirus, laying hold of the prow of a ship (Herod, vi. 114). But it seems to us much better to view the whole as one picture, in which the three successive stages of the battle are represented by their positions, and not by any actual division, the necessary transition from one part to the other being left to the imagination of the spectator, as is not uncommon in modern battle pieces. Indeed Bottiger himself seems to have had this idea in his mind ; and we can hardly understand how the writer, who sees so clearly that the scene of battle is marked by the land at one end, and the sea at the other, and who assigns so accurately to each of the three leaders their proper places in the picture, should at the same time think of cutting up the work into four tableaux, and imagine that " the same figures (i. e. of the chieftains) were probably exhibited in other divisions of the picture." Bottiger's notion of placing Marathon and Theseus, Heracles and Athena, in a separate tableau, seems to us also quite arbitrary. Pausanias says evravda Ka.1, that is, in the picture. These deities and heroes no doubt occupied, like the