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PAN.

result of a marriage connection (ko.t eiriyafjLiav\ intimates that he was married ; but we have no account of his wife, and the circumstances of his life make it probable that he lost her before leaving Athens. His departure from that city was occasioned by some insult or ill-usage which he received from Theagenes, a leading citizen, probably a magistrate of Athens, who had been prejudiced against him by some calumnies, propagated possibly by his brother philosophers, all of whom, except Proclus, he exceeded in reputation.

From Athens he removed to Constantinople, where he was introduced to Illus, at that time all-powerful with the Byzantine emperor Zeno [!llus], by one Marius or Marsus. Having attracted the admiration of Illus, either by a discourse on the soul, or by reading one of his poems, he received, through his instrumentality, an appointment as pro­fessor, with a salary, partly from the private libe­rality of Illus, partly from the public purse. But notwithstanding this powerful patronage, his open avowal of heathenism created many enemies ; and the prejudice against him was increased by the belief that he practised magic. It is probable also that his intimacy with Illus, and his influence over him, led all who were jealous of that powerful person to be hostile to Pamprepius. The subsequent history and fate of Pamprepius are related else­where. [illus.]

Suidas ascribes to Pamprepius two works:—1. 'ETv/noXoyiuv airofioffiv, Etymologiarum Etrpositio. 2. 'Iffavputd, Isaurica. Suidas states that the latter work was in prose. Its title leads to the con­ jecture that it was a history of Isauria, the native country both of Zeno and Illus. Both works are lost. (Photius, II. cc.; Suidas, I. c.; Fabric. Bibl. Grace, vol. vi. pp. 375, 601.) [J. C. M.]

PAN (Ha^), the great god of flocks and shep­herds among the Greeks ; his name is probably connected with the verb Trace,. Lat. pasco, so that his name and character are perfectly in accordance .with each other. Later speculations, according to .which Pan is the same as to rcav, or the universe, and the god the symbol of the universe, cannot be taken into consideration here. He is described as a son of Hermes by the daughter of Dry ops (Horn. Hymn. vii. 34), by Callisto (Schol. ad Theocr. i. 3), by Oeneis or Thymbris (Apollod. i. 4. § 1 ; Schol. ad Theocrit. I. c.), or as the son of Hermes by Penelope, whom the god visited in the shape of a ram (Herod, ii. 145 ; Schol. ad Theocrit. i. 123 ; Serv. ad A en. ii. 43), or of Penelope by Odysseus, or by all her suitors in common. (Serv. ad Virg. Georg. i. 16 ; Schol. ad Lycoph. 766 ; Schol. ad Theocrit. i. 3.) Some again call him the son of Aether and Oeneis, or a Nereid, or a son of Uranus and Ge. (Schol. ad Theocrit. i. 123 ; Schol. ad Lycoph. I. c.) From his being a grandson or great grandson of Cronos, he is called Kpovios. (Eurip. Rhes. 36.) He was from his birth perfectly deve­loped, and had the same appearance as afterwards, that is, he had his horns, beard, puck nose, tail, goats' feet, and was covered with hair, so that his mother ran away with fear when she saw him ; but Hermes carried him into Olympus, where all (iravrss) the gods were delighted with him, and especially Dionysus. (Horn. Hymn. vii. 36, &c.; comp. Sil. Ital. xiii. 332 ; Lucian, Dial.Deor. 22.) He was brought up by nymphs. (Paus. viii. 30. §2.) The principal seat of his worship was Arcadia

PAN.

and from thence his name and his worship after­wards spread over other parts of Greece ; and at Athens his worship was not introduced till the time of the battle of Marathon. (Paus. viii. 26. § 2 ; Virg. Eclog. x. 26 ; Pmd. Frag. 63, ed. Boeckh.; Herod, ii. 145.) In Arcadia he was the god of forests, pastures, flocks, and shepherds, and dwelt in grottoes (Eurip. lon^ 501 ; Ov. Met. xiv. 515), wandered on the summits of mountains and rocks, and in valleys, either amusing himself with the chase, or leading the dances of the nymphs. (Aeschyl. Pers. 448 ; Horn. Hymn. vii. 6, 13, 20 ; Paus. viii. 42. § 2.) As the god of flocks, both of wild and tame animals, it was his province to increase them and guard them (Horn. Hymn. vii. 5 ; Paus. viii. 38. § 8 ; Ov. Fast. ii. 271, 277; Virg. Eclog. i. 33) ; but he was also a hunter, and hunters owed their success to him, who at the same time might prevent their being successful. (Hesych. s. v. 'Aypefo.) In Arcadia hunters used to scourge the statue, if they hunted in vain (Theocrit. vii. 107); during the heat of mid day he used to slumber, and was very indignant when any one disturbed him. (Theocrit. i. 16.) As god of flocks, bees also were under his protection, as well as the coast where fishermen carried on their pursuit. (Theocrit, v. 15 ; Anthol. Palat. vi. 239, x. 10.) As the god of every thing connected with pastoral life, he was fond of music, and the inventor of the syrinx or

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shepherd's flute, which he himself played in a masterly manner, and in which he instructed others also, such as Daphnis. (Horn. Hymn. vii. 15 ; Theocrit. i. 3 ; Anthol. Palat. ix. 237, x. 11 ; Virg. Eclog. i. 32, iv. 58 ; Serv. ad Virg. Eclog. v. 20.) He is thus said to have loved the poet Pindar, and to have sung and danced his lyric songs, in return for which Pindar erected to him a sanctuary in front of his house. (Find. Pyth. iii. 139, with the Schol.; Plut. Num. 4.) Pan, like other gods who dwelt in forests, was dreaded by travellers to whom he sometimes appeared, and whom he startled with a iudden awe or terror. (Eurip. Rhes. 36.) Thus when Pheidippides, the Athenian, was sent to Sparta to solicit its aid against the Persians, Pan accosted him, and promised to terrify the barbarians, if the Athenians would worship him. (Herod, vi. 105 ; Paus. viii. 54. § 5, i. 28. § 4.) He is said to have had a terrific voice (Val. Flacc. iii. 31), and by it to have frightened the Titans in their fight with the gods. (Eratosh. Catast. 27.) It seems that this feature, namely, his fondness of noise and riot, was the cause of his being considered as the minister and companion of Cybele and Dionysus. (Val. Flacc. iii. 47 ; Pind. Fragm. 63, ed. Boeckh; Lucian, Dial. Deor. 22.) He was at the same time believed to be possessed of pro­phetic powers, and to have even instructed Apollo in this art. (Apollod. i. 4. § 1.) While roaming in his forests he fell in love with Echo, by whom or by Peitho he became the father of lynx. His love of Syrinx, after whom he named his flute, is well known from Ovid (Met. i. 691, &c. ; comp. Serv. ad Virg. Eclog. ii. 31 ; and about his other amours see Georg. iii. 391; Macrob. Sat. v. 22). Fir-trees were sacred to him, as the nymph Pitys, whom he loved, had been metamorphosed into that tree (Propert. i. 18. 20), and the sacrifices offered to him consisted of cows, rams, lambs, milk, and honey. (Theocrit. v. 58 ; Anthol. Palat. ii. 630, 697, vi. 96, 239, vii. 59.) Sacrifices were also offered to him in common with Dipnysus and the

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