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the multiplication of measures in proportions." (Lect. ix. p. 217, Westmacott's edition.)
These being the principles of the school of Pam-philus, we can easily understand the fact stated by Quintilian (xii. 10) that he and his pupil Melan-thius excelled all other painters in what he calls ratio, by which we must understand proportion in its widest sense, including composition (Pliny uses the word dispositio. See melanthius).
Of his pictures Pliny only mentions four: a Cognatio, by which we must probably understand a family group ; a battle at Phlius ; a victory of the Athenians ; and Ulysses on his raft. It is probable, though by no means certain, that we ought to add to the list a picture of the Hera-cleidae as suppliants at Athens, on the authority of the following passage in the Plutus of Aristophanes (382, 385) : —
'OpoS tiv ctt\ rov PtffjiaTO
'x.ovto. /xera raJv
ttjs yvmiKos, kov slo'htovt avrtKpvs 'Hpa/cAei5<w> ouS1 otlovv t&v
Some of the Scholiasts thought that the Pamphilus here mentioned was a tragic poet, and Callistratus and Euphronius are quoted as authorities for this statement : but, as a Scholiast remarks, there was no tragic poet of this name mentioned in the Di-dascaliae. Most of them, however, understand the allusion to be to a well-known picture of the celebrated Pamphilus ; though one of them ascribes the picture to Apollodorus, observing that Pamphilus was younger than Aristophanes. Now, bearing in mind that these allusions of the comic poets are generally to the novelties of the day, we may fairly conjecture that Pamphilus, then a young artist, had just visited Athens for the first time, and had executed this picture of the Hera-cleidae for the Athenians. The date of the second edition of the Plutus was b. c. 388.
Taking, then, this date as about the commencement of the career of Pamphilus, we must, on the other hand, place him as low as b. c. 352, when his disciple Apelles began to flourish. And these dates agree with all the other indications of his time. Thus, he is mentioned by Quintilian (I. c.) among the artists who flourished in the period commencing with the reign of Philip II. ; Pliny places him immediately before Echion and Theri-machus, who flourished in the 107th Olympiad, B. c. 352 ; and the battle of Phlius, which he painted, must have been fought between 01. 102 and 104, b. c. 372 and 364 (Miiller, Proleg. zu Mythol. p. 400). What victory of the Athenians formed the subject of the other picture mentioned by Pliny, is not known : it may be the naval victory of Chabrias, at Naxos, in b. c. 376.
2. A sculptor, who was the pupil of Praxiteles, and who therefore flourished probably about 01. 112, b.c. 332. Pliny mentions his Jupiter hos-pitalis in the collection of Asinius Pollio. (H. N. xxxvi. 5. s. 4. §, 10.)
3. The engraver of a gem representing Achilles playing on the lyre (Bracci, Tab. 90 ; Stosch, Pierres Gravees, p. 157.) [P. S.]
PAMPHILUS (Ha^tAos), a physician and grammarian at Rome, where he acquired a large fortune, probably in the second or first century
b. c. (Galen, De Compos. Medicam. sec. log. vi. 3, vol. xii. p. 839 ; Aetius, ii. 4. § 16. p. 375.) He wrote a work on plants (St. Epiphan. Adv. Haeres. i. init.), in which they were arranged in alpha betical order, and which Galen criticizes very severely, saying that Pamphilus described plants which he had evidently never seen, and that he mixed up a quantity of absurd and superstitious matter. (De Simplic. Medicam. Temper, ac Facult. vi. praef., vii. 10. § 31, vol. xi. pp. 792, 793, 796, 797, 798, xii. 31.) Several of his medical for mulae are quoted by Galen. (De Compos. Medicam. sec. Loc. vi. 3, vol. xii. p. 842, vii. 3, vol. xiii. p. 68.) He is probably the same person as the grammarian of Alexandria mentioned by Suidas. (See Lambec. Biblioth. Vindobon. vol. ii. p. ] 41, sq. ed. Kollar.) ^ [W. A. G.]
PAMPHOS (IIcfyi<£eos), a mythical poet, who is placed by Pausanias later than Olen, and much earlier than Homer. His name is connected particularly with Attica. Many of the ancient hymns, which were preserved by the Lycomidae, were ascribed to him : among these are mentioned hymns
CJ __ __ «/
to Demeter, to Artemis, to Poseidon, to Zeus, to Eros, and to the Graces, besides a Li mis-song. (Paus. passim ; Ulrici, Gesch. d. Hell Dichtkumt. vol. i.; Bode, Orpheus, and Gesch. d. Hell. Diehik. vol. i. ; Bernhardy, Grundriss d. Griech. Litt. vol. i. p. 248 ; Preller, Demeter und Persephone). It should be observed that the name is often incorrectly written Pamphus (llanos), even by good scholars ; but the above is the true form. [P. S.]
PAMPHYLUS (ria^uAos), a son of Aegi- mius and brother of Dymas, was king of the Do rians at the foot of mount Pindus, and along with the Heracleidae invaded Peloponnesus. (Apollod. ii. 8. § 3 ; Paus. ii. 28. § 3; Pind. Pytli. i. 62.) After him, a tribe of the Sicyonians was called Pamphyli. (Herod, v. 68.) [L. S.]
PAMPREPIUS (na/wrpeirtos), an Egyptian, eminent for his literary attainments and his political influence, in the latter half of the fifth century. Our knowledge of him is derived from Suidas (s. v. ILtyiTrpeTnos), who has embodied in his article three or four distinct accounts of him, not, however, very consistent with each other. One of these fragments is transcribed in the 'Icavid, Violetum, of the empress Eudocia (apud Villoison, Anecdota Graeca, vol. i. p. 357). Suidas has also preserved (s. v. SoAo&r-
rios (f)t\offO(j)os) an anecdote of Pamprepius, and some further notices are obtained from the abstracts of the Historia of Candidus and the Vita Isidori of Damascius, preserved in the Bibliotheca of Photius (codd. 79, 242). Of the accounts preserved in Suidas, one states that he was born at Panopolis, another at Thebes in Egypt. The former is more probably correct. The third account states generally that he was an Egyptian, of which there can be no doubt. The year of his birth is not known. He was remarkable for the swarthiness of his complexion and the ugliness of his features; but the endowments of his mind were of superior nature. Having devoted himself to literature, especially poetry, in which he acquired considerable reputation in his native country, he proceeded to Greece, where he spent a long time, chiefly, perhaps wholly, at Athens. Here he was chosen to a professorship, and appears to have studied philosophy at the same time, under the direction of Proclus. The expression used in one of the accounts preserved by Suidas, that his residence in Greece was the