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PALLAS.

52, Claudius proposed a law in the senate respect­ing the punishment of women who had intercourse with slaves, and mentioned the name of Pallas as the author of the law, in order that the se­nate might confer some mark of favour upon him. This was done at the instigation of Agrippina, and the servile body forthwith conferred upon Pallas the insignia of a praetor, and voted him a sum of fifteen millions of sesterces. They even

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went so far, on the proposition of Cornelius Scipio, as to return thanks to Pallas, because he was will­ing to be numbered among the servants of the emperor, although descended from the kings of Arcadia! But as Claudius said that Pallas, con­tented with the honours, would continue in his former state of poverty, they passed a decree, praising for his frugality a freedman who possessed a fortune of 300 millions of sesterces. This decree of the senate was engraved on a brazen tablet, and placed near the statue of Julius Caesar, in one of the most frequented parts of the city, where it was seen in the time of the younger Pliny, who speaks of it in terms of the greatest indignation. (Tac. Ann. xii. 53 ; Plin. Ep. vii. 29, viii. 6 ; comp. Plin. H. N. xxxv. 18. s. 58.)

As long as Claudius lived, Agrippina could not be certain of the succession of her son, and accord­ingly poisoned her husband, doubtless with the connivance and assistance of Pallas, in a. d. 54. Narcissus, who had remained true to the interests of Claudius and his son Britannicus, was also de­spatched immediately after the death of the em­peror, and thus no one any longer stood in the way of Pallas. Agrippina had hoped to govern the Roman world in the name of her son, and Pallas expected to share in her power. But both were soon dopmed to a cruel disappointment. Nero speedily became tired of his mother's control, and as one step towards emancipating himself from her authority, deprived her favourite Pallas of all his public offices, and dismissed him from the palace as early as the year 56. In the same year Pallas wan accused, together with Burrus, by one Paetus, of a conspiracy to raise Cornelius Sulla to the throne, but being defended by Seneca, according to Dion Cassius (Ixi. 10), he was acquitted. From this time he was suffered to live unmolested for some years, till at length his immense wealth ex­cited the rapacity of Nero, who had him removed by poison, in A. D. 63. His enormous wealth, which was acquired during the reign of Claudius, had become proverbial, as we see from the line in Juvenal (i. 107), ego possideo plus Pallante et Li-cinio; and when the poverty of the imperial trea­sury was complained of on one occasion in the reign of Claudius, it was said that the emperor would possess an abundance, if he were taken into partnership by his two freedmen, Narcissus and Pallas. (Suet. Claud. 28 ; comp. Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 10. s. 47.) The arrogance and pride of Pallas are specially mentioned both by Tacitus and Dion Cassius, and it is related of him that he never gave any orders, even to his freedmen, by word of mouth; and that if a nod or a sign with his hand did not suffice, he signified in writing what he wished to be done. In this he seems to have adopted the imperial practice, which was first introduced by Augustus. (Comp. Suet. Aug. 84 ; Lipsius, ad Tac. Ann. iv. 39.) The brother of Pallas was Antonius or Claudius Felix, who was appointed by Claudius to the government of Judaea, where

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PAMMENES.

he committed such atrocities that he was accused by the Jews, and was saved only from condign punishment by the influence of Pallas. [felix, antonius.] (Tac. Ann. xi. 29—38, xii. 2, 25, 53, 65, xiii. 14, 23, xiv. 2, 65 ; Dion Cass. Ixi. o, Ixii. 14 ; Suet. Claud. 28, Vitell. 2 ; Joseph. Ant. xx. 8. § 9.)

PALLAS (IlaAAas), the author of a work on the mysteries of the god Mithras (Porphyr. de Abstin. ii. 56, iv. 16).

PALLENE (IlaAtoH). 1. A daughter of Sithon, from whom the town of Pallene in the peninsula of the same name was said to have de­rived its name. (Steph. Byz. s. v.y

2. A daughter of the giant Alcyoneus, and one of the Alcyonides. (Eustath. ad Horn. p. 776 ; Suidas, s. v. 'AAKuoz^Ses.) [£,. S.]

PALLENIS (IlaAArji/fe), a surname of Athena, under which she had a temple between Athens and Marathon. (Herod, i. 62.) [L. S.]

PALLOR, i. e. paleness or pale fear, or a per­ sonification of it, was together with Pavor, i. e. Fear, a companion of Mars among the Romans. Their worship is said to have been vowed and in­ stituted by the warlike king Tullus Hostilius, either on account of a plague, or at the moment when in battle he saw the Alban Mettus desert to the enemies. The Salii, Pallorii, arid Pavorii. were instituted at the same time. (Liv. i. 27 ; August. De Civ. Dei, iv. 23.) [L. S.]

PALMA, A. CORNE'LIUS, was consul in a. d. 99, and a second time in 109. Between his first and second consulships, he was governor of Syria, and conquered the part of Arabia in the neighbour­hood of Petra, about a.d. 105 (Dion Cass. Ixviii. 14).' Palma had always been one of Hadrian's enemies, and was therefore put to death by that emperor upon his accession to the throne in 117. (Dion Cass. Ixix. 2 ; Spart. Hadr. 4.)

PAMMENES (Uaa^vns). 1. An Athenian, the son of Pammenes. He exercised the trade of a goldsmith, and was employed by Demosthenes to make for him a crown of gold, and a garment interwoven with gold, to wear at the Dionysia. When they were ready, Meidias entered by night into the workshop of Pammenes, and endeavoured to destroy the crown and garments, in which he was partially successful, but was interrupted by the appearance of Pammenes. (Dem. c. Meid. p. 521.)

2. A Theban general of considerable celebrity. He was connected with Epaminondas by political and friendly ties. When Philip, the future king of Macedonia, was sent as hostage to Thebes, he was placed under the care of Pammenes. (Pint. Pelop. c. 26.) In b. c. 371? when Megalopolis was founded, as it was apprehended that the Spar­tans would attack those engaged in that work, Epaminondas sent Pammenes at the head of 1000 picked troops to defend them. (Pans. viii. 27. § 2.) In B. c. 352, a party amongst the Megalo-politans were for dissolving the community, and returning to their own cantons, and called upon the Mantineans and other Peloponnesians, for aid. The Megalopolitans who opposed this dissolution of the state called in the aid of the Thebans, who sent Pammenes with 3000 foot soldiers and 300 cavalry to their assistance. With this force Pam­menes overcame all resistance, and compelled those who had left Megalopolis to return. (Diod. xv. 94, where by a mistake the Athenians, and not

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