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mere imitation, while that which Aeneas brought to Italy was the genuine one. (Dionys. L c. ; Paus. ii. 23. § 5 ; Ov. Fast. vi. 421, &c.) But if we look away from this twofold Palladium, which was probably a mere invention to account for its existence in more than one place, several towns both in Greece and Italy claimed the honour of possess­ ing the ancient Trojan Palladium ; as for example, Argos (Paus. ii. 23. § 5), and Athens, where it was believed that Diomedes, on his return from Troy, landed on the Attic coast at night, without know­ ing what country it was. He accordingly began to plunder ; but Demophon, who hastened to pro­ tect the country, took the Palladium from Dio­ medes. (Paus. i. 28. § 9.) This Palladium at Athens, however, was different from another image of Pallas there, which was also called Palladium, and stood on the acropolis. (Paus. I. c.) In Italy the cities of Rome, Lavinium, Luceria, and Siris likewise pretended to possess the Trojan Palladium. (Strab. vi. p. 264 ; Serv. ad Aen. ii. 166, &c. ; Plut. Ca- mill. 20; Tac. Ann. xv. 41 ; Dionys. ii. 66.) Figures reminding us of the description we have of the Trojan Palladium are frequently seen in ancient works of art. [L. S.]

PALLADIUS (IlaAAafoos), a Greek medical writer, some of whose works are still extant. No­thing is known of the events of his life, but, as he is commonly called 'laTpocrotyKrrrfs, he is supposed to have gained that title by having been a professor of medicine at Alexandria. His date is also very uncertain ; Choulant places him in the fourth cen­tury after Christ (Handb. der Bucherkunde fur die Aeltere Mediciri), but most other writers in the seventh or eighth. All that can be pronounced with certainty is that he quotes Galen, and is him­self quoted by Rhazes, and must therefore have lived between the third and ninth centuries. We possess three works that are commonly attributed to him, viz. 1. SxoAia ets t& Trepi "'Ay/j.uv 'linro-Kparovs," Scholia in Librum Hippocratis De Frac-turis ;" 2. Els "ektov t£v 'EinSrj/iKSj/ 'Tvro/x^yua, " In Sextum (Pseudo-Hippocratis) Epidemiorurn Librum Oommentarius ;" and 3. Ilepi nupereo// (Tvvro/jios 3m'(M//ts, " De Febribus concisa Synop­sis." His Commentaries on Hippocrates are in a great measure abridged from Galen, and of no par­ticular interest or value ; they appear to have been known to the Arabian writers, as he is mentioned among the Commentators on Hippocrates by the unknown author of the " Philosophorum Biblio-theca," quoted by Casiri, Biblioth. Arabico-Hisp. Escur. vol. i. p. 237. They have both of them come down to us imperfect. That on the work " De Fracturis" was translated into Latin by Jac. Santalbinus, and first published by Foesius (Gr. and Lat.) in his edition of Hippocrates, Francof. 1595, fol. (sect. vi. p. 196, &c.) ; it is also to be found (Gr. and Lat.) in the twelfth volume of Chartier's Hippocrates and Galen, Paris, 1679, fol. The commentary on the sixth book of the Epi­demics was translated into Latin by ,T. P. Crassus, and published after his death by his son in the collection entitled " Medici Antiqui Graeci," &c. Basil. 1581, 4to. ; the Greek text was published for the first time by F. R. Dietz in the second volume of his 6l Scholia in Hippocratem et Gale-num," Regim. Pruss. 1834, 8vo. The treatise on Fevers is a short work, consisting of thirty chap­ters, and treats of the causes, symptoms, and treat­ment of the different kinds of fever. It is taken


chiefly from Galen, and does not require any more special notice here. In most MSS. this work is attributed to Stephanus Alexandrinus or Theo-philus ; but, as it is probably the treatise referred to in the Commentary on the Epidemics (vi. 6, p. 164, ed. Dietz), it is tolerably certain that Palladius was the author. It was first published in Greek and Latin by J. Chartier, Paris, 1646, 4to. ; an improved edition, Gr. and Lat., with notes, was published by J. S. Bernard, Lugd. Bat. 1745, 8vo.; and the Greek text alone is inserted in the first volume of J. L. Ideler's " Physici et Medici Graeci Minores," Berol. 1841, 8vo. (Bernard's Preface ; Freind's Hist, of Physic ; Sprengel's Hist, de la Med. ; Haller's Biblioth. Medic. Pract.; Dietz's Preface ; Choulant's Handb. der Buclier-kundefur die Aeltere Medicin.} [W. A. G.]

PALLADIUS (IlaAAa'Sfos), literary. 1. Of alexandria. Caspar Barthius (Adversar. lib. v. c. 3) has ascribed to Palladius of Alexan­dria the account of the discussion between Gre-gentius of Tephar and the Jew Herbanus, in the sixth century. [gregentius.] (Fabric. BibL Graec. vol. x. p. 115.]

2. Of alexandria, called iatrosophista, a Greek physician. [See above.]

3. Of aspona. [No. 7.]

4. chrysostomi vitae scriptor. [No. 7.]

5. epigrammaticus poeta [palladas].

6. galata, the galatian.

7. Of helenopolis. The name of Palladius occurs repeatedly in the ecclesiastical and literary history of the early part of the fifth century. The difficulty is in determining whether these notices refer to one individual or to more. We include in this one article a notice of the author of the biographies usually termed the Lausiac History, the author of the life of Chrysostom, and the bishop of Helenopolis, and subsequently of Aspona, no­ticing, as we proceed, what grounds there are for belief or disbelief as to their being one and the same person.

Palladius, who wrote the Lausiac History, states in the introduction, that he composed it in his fifty-third year ; and as there is reason to fix the date of the composition in a. d. 419 or 420, his birth may be placed in or about 367. He adds also, that it was the thirty-third year of his mo­nastic life, and the twentieth of his episcopate. It is this last date which furnishes the means of de­termining the others. The Latin versions of his history (c. 41, Meurs., 43. BibL Pat.) make him reply to a question of Joannes of Lycopolis, an eminent Egyptian solitan'-, that he was a Galatian, and a companion or disciple (ex sodalitate) of Eva-grius of Pontus. But the passage is wanting in the Greek text, and that not, as Tillemont thinks, from an error or omission of the printer, for the omission is found both in the text of Meursius (c. 41) and that of the Bibliotheca Patrum (c. 43) ; so that the statement is not free from doubt. In two other places he refers to his being a long time in Galatia (c. 64, Meurs., c. 113, Bibl. Patr.\ and being at Ancyra (c. 98. Meurs., c.114, Bibl. Pair.\ but these passages do not prove that he was born there, for he was in that province in the latter part of his life. He embraced a solitary life, as already observed, at the age of twenty, which, if his birth was in a. d. 367, would be in a. d, 387. The places of his residence, at successive periods, can only be conjectured from incidental notices in the

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