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PALAMAS.

Nicepn. Gregor. vol. ii. p. 1321, ed. Bonn), though probably now neglected or forgotten.

Palamas was a copious writer ; many of his works are extant in MS., and are enumerated by Wharton and Gery in the Appendix to Cave, and by Fabricius. Nicephorus Gregoras says (xxiii. 3. § 3) that he wrote more than sixty Ao'yoj, orationes; and Boivin, in a note on the passage (vol. ii. p. 1317, ed. Bonn), states that one MS. in the king's library at Paris contained more than seventy homilies or other short pieces. So that the state­ment of Gregoras must refer only to pieces written on occasion of Palamas' controversy with him, or must be very much below the mark- The following have been published. 1. Prosopopoeia s. Prosopo-poeiae, s. Orationes duae judidales, Mentis Corpus accusantis, et Corporis sese dcfendentis, una cum Judicum Sententia ; published under the editorial ,care of Adr. Turnebus, 4to. Paris, 1553, and given in a Latin version in many editions of the Biblio­tJleca Patrum, e. g. in vol. xxvi. p. 199, &c., ed. Lyon, 1677. 2. Els t-tiv ffeirrriv fjLera/j.opcp^o'iv tov Kvpiov Kal &5ov ical ^oorrjpos TJ/Acav 'Irjffov ..XpiOTou* fv fj TrapdffTadis on to ko.t' avrriv (pus .aKTLcrrov effnv. Aoyos of. In venerabilem Domini et Dei ac Salvatoris nostri Jesu Christi Transforma-tionem, ubi probatur quod in ea est lumen increatum esse ,• Oratio Prima. 'O,iuA£a els Tr\v adrrlv rev Kvpiov o~€Tm}v [j.€rafjt,6pfpoo<nv sv 77 •napaffraffii <as et Kal a/CTioToV e<TTi to /car' avrijv SrsioTarov qms, dA.\' ovk €<ttw ovcria ©eoy. \6yos ft. Tractalus in eandem venerandam Domini Transformationem ; in quo probatur^ quanquam increatum est illius divinis-siinum Lumen^ liaud tamcn Dei Essentiam esse. Oratio Secunda. These two orations were pub­lished with a Latin version by Comb^fis in his Auctarium Novissimum, fol. Paris, 1672, pars ii. p. 106,-&c. The Latin version was given in the Lyon edition of the BibliotJleca Patrum, fol. 1677, vol. xxvi. p. 209, &c. 3. Aoyoi &', dirob'siKnKol on oi5%t Kal e/c tcu Tfou dAA* e/c /j.6vou rod Tlarpos €/C7ropey€Tat to 7rpeu/xa to ayiov, Orationes duae demonstrativae quod non ex Filio9 sed ex solo Patre procedat Spiritus Sanctus. These were published, 4to. London, without date (but stated by some of our authorities to be 1624), together with a num­ber of other pieces of Barlaam the Calabrian, Ga­briel Severus of Philadelphia, Meleteus Pega of Alexandria, Maximus Margunius of Cerigo, Nilus, and Georgius Scholarius [gennadius of Constan­tinople, No. 2], Greek writers of comparatively recent period. This volume was dedicated to the four patriarchs of the Greek Church, Cyrillus Lu-caris of Constantinople, Gerasimus Spartaliotes of Alexandria, Athanasius III. of Antioch, and Theophanes IV. of Jerusalem. 4. 'Avreiriypatyal, Refutatio Eocpositionum s. Epigrapliarum Joannis Vecci) published with a Confutatio by Cardinal Bessarion [joannes, No. 21] in the Opuscula Aurea of Petrus Arcudius, 4to. Rome, 1630, and again 1671. 5. S. Petri Athonitae (s. de Monte Atlio) Encomium., published with a Latin version, introduction, and notes, by Conrad. Janningus, in the Ada Sanctorum, Junii^ a. d. xii. vol. ii. p. 535, &c. 6. 'ett! Aarivwv ffWTO/^ta, Adversus Latinos Confessio, printed from a MS. in the royal library at Turin in the Codices MSti Bibliotli. Reg. Taurin. pars i. p. 281-2. 7. 'ETno-ToA?) irpbs ttjj/ S-€oo*T6^)77 /8a(nAt§a Kvpav "Kvvav t^v Tla\aio\o~ yivav9 Epistola ad divinitus coronatam Augustam Annam Palaeologinam^ printed by Boivin in his

PALAMEDES.

notes to the Hist. Byzant. of Nicephorus Gregoras, fol. Paris, 1702, p. 787 ; vol. ii. p. 1282, ed. Bonn. Boivin has also given two extracts, one of some length, from a writing of Palamas, Adversus Jo* annem Calecam (p. 789, ed. Paris, p. 1285, ed. Bonn) ; the other, very brief, from an Epiatola ad Joannem Gabram (p. 1275, ed. Bonn). Various citations from his works, but without further speci­fication, are given by Nicephorus Gregoras (Hist. Byzant. xxiii. 3. § 2. p. 697, &c., ed. Paris, p. 1112, &c., ed. Bonn). It is probable that the Tomus or declaration issued by the synod of Constantinople, A. D. 1351, against the Barlaamites was drawn up by Palamas or under his inspection. It is given with a Latin version by Comb6fis in his Auctarium Novissimum, fol. Paris, 1672, pars ii. p. 135, &c., and is entitled tojlws tKreOels irapa rijs freias tepas ffuvofiov tov avyKporfiQsifffis Kara to BapXadfj, re Kal >A.Kivftvvov eTTi

rf(i.<av KavraKovfyvov Kal TlaXaioXoyov, Tomus a divina sacraque Synodo adversus eos coacta qui Barlaam et A cindyni opinionis sunt^ Cantacuzeno ac Palaeologo reli<jiosis ortliodoxisque Imperatoribus nostrib, editus ac escpositus. The Greek writers be­ longing to the Romish Church, as Allatius, Nicolaus Comnenus Papadopoli, and others, heap on Palamas every term of reproach : on the other hand, the orthodox Greeks extol him highly, and ascribe mi­ raculous efficacy to his relics. (Cave, Hist. Lift., fol. Oxford, 1740 — 43, vol. ii. Appendix^ by Whar­ ton and Gery, pp. 54, 55 ; Fabric. Biblioth. Graec. vol. x. pp. 454 — 462, and 790, ed. vet. ; vol. xi. p. 494, &c., ed. Harles ; Oudin, De Scriptorib. Ecdes.\o\. iii. col. 843.) [J. C. M.]

PALAMEDES (HaAa^^s), a son of Nau-plius and Clymene, the daughter of Atreus (or Catreus, Tzetz. ad Lye. 384), and brother of Oeax. He joined the Greeks in their expedition against Troy ; but Agamemnon, Diomedes, and Odysseus, envious of his fame, caused a captive Phrygian to write to Palamedes a letter in the name of Priam, and then induced a servant of Palamedes by bribes to conceal the letter under his master's bed. Here­upon they accused Palamedes of treachery ; they searched his tent, and as they found the letter which they themselves had dictated, they caused him to be stoned to death. When Palamedes was led to death, he exclaimed, " Truth, I lament thee, for thou hast died even before me." (Schol. ad Eur. Orest. 422 ; Philostr. Her. 10 ; Ov. Met. xiir. 56.) According to some traditions, it was Odys­seus alone who hated and persecuted Palamedes. (Hygin. Fab. 105 ; Xenoph. Memor. iv. 2. § 23, Apolog. § 26.) The cause of this hatred too is not the same in all writers ; for according to some, Odysseus hated him because he had been com­pelled by him to join the Greeks against Troy (Hygin. Fab. 95 ; Ov. Met. xiii. 58 ; eomp. odys­seus), or because he had been severely censured by Palamedes for returning from a foraging excursion into Thrace with empty hands. (Serv. ad Aen. ii. 81 ; comp. Philostr. Her. 10.) The manner of Palamedes' death is likewise related differently : some say that Odysseus and Diomedes induced him to descend into a well, where they pretended they had discovered a treasure, and as he was below they cast stones upon him, and killed him (Diet. Cret. ii. 15) ; others state that he was drowned by them whilst fishing (Paus. x. 31. § 1) ; and ac­cording to Dares Phrygius (28) he was killed by

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