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On this page: Palaemon – Palaephatus

PALAEMON.

PALAEMON (llaAcuV^). signifies the wrest­ler, as in. the surname of Heracles in Lycophron (663); but it also occurs as a proper name of seve­ral mythical personages.

1. A son of Athamas and Ino, was originally called Melicertes. When his mother, who was driven mad by Hera, had thrown herself with her boy, who was either still alive or already killed, from the Molurian rock into the sea, both be­came marine divinities, viz. Ino became Leuco-thea, and Melicertes became Palaemon. (Apollod. iii. 4. § 3 ; Hygin, Fab. 2 ; Ov. Met. iv. 520, xiii. 919.) According to some, Melicertes after his apotheosis was called Glaucus (Athen. vii. p. 296), whereas, according to another version, Glaucus is said to have leaped into the sea from his love of Melicertes. (Athen. vii. p. 297.) The apotheosis was effected by the Nereides, who saved Meli­certes, and also ordered the institution of the Ne-mean games. The body of Melicertes, according to the common tradition, was washed by the waves, or carried by dolphins into port Schoenus on the Corinthian isthmus, or to that spot on the coast where subsequently the altar of Palaemon stood. (Paus. i. 44. § 11, ii. 1. § 3 ; Plut. Sympos. v. 3.) There the body was found by his uncle Sisyphus, who ordered it to be carried by Donacinus and Amphimachus to Corinth, and on the command of the Nereides instituted the Isthmian games and sacrifices -of black bulls in honour of the deified Palaemon. (Tzetz. ad Lye. 107, 229 ; Philostr. Her. 19, Icon. ii. 16 ; Paus. ii. 1. § 3 ; Schol. ad Eurip. Med. 1274 ; Eurip. Iph. Taur. 251.) On the isthmus of Corinth there was a temple of Palae­mon with statues of Palaemon, Leucothea, and Poseidon ; and near the same place was a subter­raneous sanctuary, which was believed to contain the remains of Palaemon. (Pans. ii. 2. § 1.) In the island of Tenedos, it is said that children were sacrificed to him, and the whole worship seems to have had something gloomy and orgiastic about it. -(Philostr. I.e. ; Horn. Od. iii. 6.) In works of art Palaemon is represented as a boy carried by marine deities or dolphins. (Philustr. Icon. ii. 16.) The Romans identified Palaemon with their own god Portunus, or Portumnus. [portunus.]

2. A son of Hephaestus, or Aetolus, or Lernus, was one of the Argonauts. (Apollod. i. 9. § 16 ; Apollon. Rl.od. i. 202 ; Orph. Argon. 208.)

3. A son of Heracles by Autonoe, the daughter of Peireus, or by Iphinoe, the daughter of Antaeus. (Apollod. ii. 7. § 8 ; Tzetz. ad Lye. 662.)

4. One of the sons of Priam. (Hygin. Fab. 90.) [L. S.J.

PALAEMON, Q. IlE'MMIUS, a celebrated grammarian in the reigns of Tiberius, Caligula, and Claudius, is placed by Jerome (ad Euseb.} in the eighth year of the reign of Claudius, a. d. 48. He was a native of Vicentia ( Vicenza), in the north of Italy, and was originally a slave ; but having been manumitted, he opened a school at Rome, where he became the most celebrated grammarian of his time, and obtained great numbers of pupils, though his moral character was so infamous that Tiberius and Claudius used to say that there was no one to whom the training of youths ought so little to be entrusted. Suetonius gives rather a long account of him (de Illustr. Gram. 23), and he is also men­tioned by Juvenal on two occasions (vi.451, vii. 251 —219). From the scholiast on Juvenal (vi. 451) we learn that Palaemon was the master of Quintilian.

PALAEPHATUS.

PALAEPHATUS (HaAa^aros), the name oT four literary persons in Suidas, who, however, seems to have confounded different persons and writings.

]. Of Athens, an epic poet, to whom a mythical origin was assigned. According to some he was a son of Actaeus and Boeo, according to others of locles and Metaneira, and according to a third statement of Hermes. The time at which he lived is uncertain, but he appears to have been usually placed after Phemonoe [phemonoe], though some writers assigned him even an earlier date. He is represented by Christodorus (Anth. Grace, i. p. 27, ed. Tauchnitz) as an old bard crowned with laurel

Sd(pvr) /ugv TrAo/m/zTSa Ha\ai(paTos GTrpeTre udvns

8e

Suidas has preserved the titles of the following poems of Palaephatus : "Eypafye 5e (1) koctuo-irouav, els eTTT; e', (2) 'att 6 \\owos Kal ' yovas eTTTj 7', (3) 'A^poSiT^s nal "Epcoros Kal Aoyovs eirrj e', (4) 'AGrjvas cpiv Kal vos 67T77 a', (5) Arjruvs irX6K.afj.ov.

2. Of Paros, or Priene, lived in the time of Ar-taxerxes. Suidas attributes to him the five books of ^ATricrra, but adds that many persons assigned this work to Palaephatus of Athens. This is the work which is still extant, and is spoken of below.

3. Of Abydus, nn historian (tcrropiKos), lived in the time of Alexander the Great, and is stated to have been loved (TraiSiKci) by the philosopher Aristotle, for which Suidas quotes the authority of Philo, Ilepl irapa$6£ov lo-ropias., and of Theodorus of Ilium, 'Ei> SevTfpcp TpdotKwv. Suidas gives the titles of the following works of Palaephatus : KwrrpiaKd, Ar/Aia/ca, 'Arri/ca, 3Apa€titd. Some writers believe that this Palaephatus of Abydus is the author of the fragment on Assyrian history, which is preserved by Eusebius, and which is quoted by him as the work of Abydenus. There can, how­ever, be little doubt that Abydenus is the name of the writer, and not an appellative taken from his native place. (Voss. de Hist. Grace, pp. 85, 375, ed. Westermann.) [abydenus.]

4. An Egyptian or Athenian, and a grammarian, as he is described by Suidas, who assigns to him the following works: (1) AlyvirriaKrl &€o\oyia. (2) MvdiKotv j8i§A£oi/ of. (3) AuVets twv juu&-kws tlprttJiivtoV. (4) 'YiroGecreis els SiuwvtSrjv. (5) Tpw'iKa, which some however attributed to the Athenian [No. 1], and others to the Parian [No. 2J. He also wrote (6) 'Iffropla ISia. It has been supposed that the Mutiuta. and the Avffeis are one and the same work ; but we have no certain in­formation on the point. Of these works the TpaiKoi seems to have been the most celebrated, as we find it frequently referred to by the ancient gramma­rians. It contained apparently geographical and historical discussions respecting Asia Minor and more particularly its northern coasts, and must have been divided into several books. (Comp. Suidas, s. v. Ma;cpoK6(/>aA.oi ; Steph. Byz. s. v. Xapi/xarcu ; Harpocrat. s. v. Au<rayA,7?s.)

There is extant a small work entitled TlaXaitya.-ros irepl diriffroov^ or " Concerning Incredible Tales," giving a brief account of some of the most celebrated Greek legends. That this is merely an abstract of a much larger work is evident from many considerations ; first, because Suidas speaks of it as consisting of five books [see above, No. 2 j ; secondly, because many of the ancient writers refer

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