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test was introduced for the first time. (Pans. v. 8. §7.)
2. The father of Pindar, according to Eustathius (tProoem. Comment. Pind.}.
3. A native of Thebes,, the son of Aeoladas. He was one of the Boeotarchs in the year b.c. 424, when 'the Athenian expedition to Delium took place. After the fortification of Delium the Athenian troops received orders to return, and the light troops proceeded without stopping to Attica. The heavy-armed infantry halted a short distance from Delium to wait for the Athenian general Hippocrates. Meantime the Boeotian forces had assembled at Tanagra. Most of the Boeotarchs were unwilling to attack the Athenians. But Pagondas, who was one of the two Theban Boeotarchs,. and was commander-in-chief of the Boeotian forces, wishing that the chance of a battle should be tried, by an appeal to the several divisions of the army persuaded the troops to adopt his views. His harangue is reported by Thucydides (iv. 92). The day being far advanced, he led the main body of his troops at full speed to meet the Athenians, despatching one portion to keep in check the cavalry stationed by Hippocrates at Delium ; and, having reached a spot where he was only separated by a hill from the enemy, he drew up his army in battle array, and reached the summit of the ridge when the Athenian line was scarcely formed. As the Boeotian troops halted to take breath Pagondas again harangued them. The Theban division, which was twenty-five deep, bore down all opposition, and the appearance of two squadrons of Boeotian cavalry, which Pagondas had sent round the back of the hill to support his left wing, threw the Athenians into complete confusion, and the rout became general. Seventeen days after the battle the fortress at Delium was also taken. (Thuc. iv. 91 —96; Athen. v. p. 215, f.)
4. A man of the name of Pagondas is spoken of by Theodoretus (de Cur. Affect. Grace, lib. ix.), as a legislator among the Achaeans. But as nothing further is known of him, and Pagondas is a name that does not elsewhere appear in use among the Achaeans, all those bearing the name of whom we have any certain knowledge being Boeotians, it has been conjectured with some probability that the name Pagondas in the passage of Theo doretus has been substituted through some mis take for Charondas. (Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. ii. p. 36.) [C. P. M.]
PALAEOLOGUS (Ua\aio\oyos), the name of an illustrious Byzantine family, of which there are said to have been descendants still existing in the 17th century (Du Cange, Familiae Byzantinae, p. 255). This family is first mentioned in the eleventh century [see below No. 1 ], and from that time down to the downfall of the Byzantine empire the name constantly occurs. It was the last Greek family that sat upon the throne of Constantinople, and it reigned uninterruptedly from the year 1260 to 1453, when Constantinople was taken by the Turks, and the last emperor of the family fell while bravely defending his capital. A branch of this family ruled over Montferrat in Italy from A. d. 1305 to 1530, Theodoras Comnenus Palaeo-logus, the son of Andronicus II., taking possession of the principality in virtue of the will of John of Montferrat, who died without children. This branch of the family does not fall within the
compass of the present work ; and we can only mention the leading Palaeologi spoken of in Byzantine history. A full account of all of them is given by Du Cange, where all the authorities for the following particulars are collected (Familiae Byzantinae, pp. 230—348).
1. nicephorus palaeologus, with the title of Hypertimus, was a faithful servant of the emperor Nicephorus III. Botariiates (a. D.I 078 —1081), and was rewarded by him with the government of Mesopotamia. He perished in battle in the reign of his successor Alexius I. Comnenus, while defending Dyrrhachium (Du-razzo) against the Normans, a. d. 1081.
2. georgius palaeologus, the son of the preceding, was celebrated for his military abilities, and served with his father under the emperors Nicephorus III. and Alexius I. He married Irene, the daughter of the Protovestiarius Andro-nicus Ducas.
3. michael palaeologus, with the title of Sebastus, probably a son of No. 2, was banished by Calo-Joannes or Joannes II. Comnenus, the successor of Alexius I. Comnenus (a. d. 1118—-1143), but was recalled from banishment by Manuel I. Comnenus, the successor of Calo-Joannes. He commanded the Greek forces in southern Italy, and carried on war with success against William, king of Sicily, but died in 1155, in the middle of his conquests, at the town of Bari, which he had taken a short time before.
4. georgius palaeologus, with the title of Sebastus, a contemporary of No. 3, was employed by Manuel I. Comnenus in many important embassies. He is supposed by Du Cange to be the same as the Georgius Palaeologus, who took part in the conspiracy by which Isaac II. Angelus was dethroned, and Alexius III. Angelus raised to the crown in 1195, and who was killed in the storming of Crizimon in 1199.
5. nicephorus palaeologus, governor of Trapezus, about A. d. 1179.
7. alexius palaeologus, married Irene, the eldest daughter of Alexius III. Angelus, and was destined by this emperor as his successor, but he died shortly before the arrival of the Crusaders at Constantinople,
8. andronicus palaeologus, the ancestor of the imperial family of the Palaeologi, was Magnus Domesticus under the emperors Theodoras Lascaris and Joannes III. Vatatzes. He assumed the surname of Comnenus, which was borne likewise by his descendants. He married Irene Palaeologina, the daughter of Alexius Palaeologus [No. 7], and the grand-daughter of the emperor Alexius III. His children being thus descended, both on their father's and mother's side, from the Palaeologi are called by Georgius Phranzes (i. 1) 5t7rAo7raAaioAo7ot. The following stemma, which has been drawn up by Wilken (in Ersch and Gruber's Encyldop'ddie, art. Palaologen) from Du Cange's work, exhibits all the descendants of this * Andronicus Palaeologus. The lives of all the emperors are given in separate articles, and the other persons are not of sufficient importance to require a distinct notice. Of course, all the persons on this stemma bore the name of Palaeologus, but it is omitted here in order to save space.