The Ancient Library

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work in some MSS. in place of his. The Lexicon is extant in the Latin version of Jerome, among whose works it is usually printed. (Vol. ii. pars i. edit. Benedictin, vol. iii. ed. Vallars.)

The collected works of Origen, more or less complete, have been repeatedly published. The first editions contained the Latin versions only ; they were those of Jac. Merlinus, 4 vols., or more exactly, 4 parts in 2 vols. fol. Paris, 1512—1519. In this edition the editor published an Apologia pro Origene, which involved him in much trouble, and obliged him to defend himself in a new Apo­logia, published in a. d. 1522, when his edition was reprinted, as it was again in 1530, and perhaps 1536. The second edition was prepared by Erasmus, who made the versions, and was published after his death by Beatus Rhenanus, fol. Basel. 1536. Panzer (Annales Typ. vol. vii.) gives the version of Eras­mus as published in 4 vols. fol. Lyon (Lugdunum), 1536. It was reprinted, with additions, in 1545, 1551,1557, and 1571. The third and most complete Latin edition was that of Gilbertus Genebrardus, 2 vols. Paris, 1574, reprinted in 1604 and 1619. The value of these Latin editions is diminished by the consideration, that some of the works of Origen, for instance, the De Martyrio and De Oratione, are not contained in them, and that the versions of Rufinus, which make up a large part of them, are notoriously unfaithful. We do not here notice any but professedly complete editions of Origen's works.

Of the Graeco-Latin editions the most important are the following: — Origenis Opera Exegetica, 2 vols. fol. Rouen, 1668, edited by Pierre Daniel Huet,, afterwards Bp. of Avranches. An ample and valuable dissertation on the life, opinions, and works of Origen, entitled Origeniana, was prefixed to this edition. The fragments, collected from the Catenae oy Combefis, were sent to Huet, but were not inserted by him. Huet intended to publish the complete works of Origen, but did not execute his purpose. His edition was reprinted at Paris, in 1679, and at Cologne, or rather Frankfort, in 1685. But th-e standard edition of Origen's works is that of the French Benedictine, Charles Delarue, completed after his death by his nephew, Charles Vincent Delarue, a monk of the same order, 4 vols. fol. Paris, 1733—1759. The first volume contains the Miscellaneous, including some of the supposi­titious works ; and the other three the Exegetical works, including one of the supposititious Commen-tarii in Jobum. The fragments of the Heocapla and the Hebraicorum Nominum, <$[c. Interpretation and a portion of the supposititious works, are not given. To the fourth volume are appended (1) Ru­finus' version of the Apologia pro Origene of the Martyr Pamphilus, with considerable fragments of the Greek, accompanied by a new Latin version of the fragments. '(2) The Epilogus of Rufinus on the interpolation of Origen's writings. (3) Els 'tipLjevrjv irpocrtyiiWTjTiKos Kal iravfiyvpiKos Aoyos. In Origenem Prosphonetiea ac Panegyrica Oratio, addressed by Gregorius Thaumaturgus to Origen, his preceptor, on leaving him to return to his native land, with the Latin version of Gerard Vossius. (4) The Origemana of Huet: and (5) an extract from Bishop Bull's Defensio Fidei Nicaenae, cap. ix. on the Consubstantiality 'of the Son of God. The whole works were accompanied by valuable pre­faces, " monita," and notes.

The works of Origen, from the edition of Dela­rue, revised by Oberthur, were reprinted without


notes, in 15 vols. 8vo. Wurzburg, 1785, &c. A number of additional passages from Origen, chiefly gleaned from various Catenae, and containing Scho~ Ha on several of the books of Scripture, are given in the Appendix to the xivth (posthumous) volume of Galland's Bibliotheca Patrum. The most important of these additions are to the Scholia on the books of Deuteronomy, Samuel. Kings, Job, Psalms, Pro­verbs, and the Gospels of Matthew and Luke. Some additions to the Scholia on the Canticles, and to the Hexaplar readings on the same book, are contained in the Els to. fyaruara, Catena in Canticum, of Procopius of Gaza, published in the Classicorum Auctorum e Vaticanis Codd. editorum of Angelo Mai,vol. ix. p. 257, &c. 8vo. Rome, 1837. Two fragments of Origen, one considerable one, Els to Kara AovKav, In Evangelium Lucae (pp. 474—482), and one of a few lines, Els Aeum/coj>, In Leviticum, appear in vol. x. of the same series. Some Scholia of Origen are contained in a collection, Els tov Aavn)A epfArjvtiai Sra^opwv, In Danielem Variorum Commentarii, published in vol. i. pars ii. p. 161, &c. of the Scriptoruin Veterum Nova Colledio, 10 vols. 4to. Rome, 1825, &c. of the same learned editor.

On the writings of Origen. see Huet, Origeniana, lib. iii.; Cave, Hist. Litt. ad ann. 230, vol. i. p. 112, ed. Oxford, 1740—43 ; Tillemont, Memoires, vol. iii. p. 551, &c., 771, &c. ; Dupin, Nouvelle Biblioth. desAut. EccUs. desl. II. III. Siecles, vol. i. p. 326, &c. 3d ed. 8vo. Paris, 1698; Fabric. Bibl. Grace. vol. iii. p. 708, &c., vol. vi. p. 199, &c., vol. vii. p. 201 ; Oudin. Comment, de Scriptoribus Eccles. vol. i. col. 231, &c.; Ceillier, Auteurs Sacrts, vol. ii. p. 601, &c.; Lardner, Credibility', &c. part ii. c. 38.

Few writers have exercised greater influence by the force of their intellect and the variety of their attainments than Origen, or have been the occasion of longer and more acrimonious disputes. His influence is the more remarkable as he had not the advantage of high rank and a commanding position in the church ; and his freedom in interpreting the Scriptures, and the general liberality of his views were in direct opposition to the current of religious opinion in his own and subsequent times.

Of the more distinctive tenets of this father, several had reference to the doctrine of the Trinity, on which he was charged with distin­guishing the ovffia, substantia, of the Father from that of the Son, with affirming the inferiority of the Holy Spirit to the Son, with making both the Son and Spirit creatures, and with various other errors either asserted by him, or regarded as necessarily flowing from his assertions, which it is not requisite to mention. Others of his opinions had reference to the difficult subject of the incar­nation, and to the pre-existence of Christ's human soul, which, as well as the pre-existence of other human souls, he affirmed. He was charged also with holding the corporeity of angels, and with other errors as to angels and daemons, on which subjects his views appear to have fluctuated. He held the freedom of the human will, and ascribed to man a nature less corrupt and depraved than was consistent with orthodox views of the ope­ration of divine grace. He held the doctrine of the universal restoration of the guilty, conceiving that the devil alone would suffer eternal punish­ment. Other points of less moment we do not notice here. A full discussion of them is contained in the Origeniana of Huet (lib. ii. c. 2, 3).

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