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ORIGENES.

the '* Euporista ad Eunapium," and the nineteen books of the " Collecta Medicinalia" that were then discovered (including the two treatises " De Laqueis " and " De Machinamentis "), and pub­lished them together, with the title " Oribasii quae restant Omnia," Basil. 1557, 3 vols. 8vo. They are also to be found in H. Stephani " Medicae Artis Principes," Paris, 1567, fol. The pieces en­titled " De Victus Ratione, per quodlibet Anni Tempus" (Basil. 1528, fol.) and "De Simplici-bus " (Argent. 1533, fol.) are probably extracted from his larger works.

Oribasius is said by Suidas to have been the author of some other works which are now lost, viz. 1. Ilepl BacnAetas, De Regno ; 2. Ilepi De Affections ; and 3. TIpos tovs 'ATropovvras 'larpcwj', Ad illos quibus Medicorum Copia non datur (or perhaps rather Ad Medicos dubitantes, vel inopes Consilii\ which last has been conjectured to have been the same work as the " Euporista ad Eunapium," mentioned above.

Besides these works, a commentary on the Aphorisms of Hippocrates goes under the name of Oribasius, but is undoubtedly spurious. It was first published in Latin by J. Guinterius Ander-nacus, Paris, 1533, 8vo., and has been thrice re­printed. It is probable that the work does not exist in Greek, and that it was written by a person who made use of a Latin translation of the " Syn­opsis ad Eustathium," and who composed it with the intention of passing it off as the genuine work of Oribasius. If so, it is a clumsy forgery, and betrays its spurious origin to the most cursory in­spector, being apparently the work of a Christian, and at the same time purporting to be written at the command of Ptolemy Euergetes. It has been conjectured that it was composed by some physi­cian belonging to the school of Salerno, about the beginning of the fourteenth century ; but this is certainly too recent, as it is to be found in two MSS. at Paris, which are supposed to belong to the tenth century. (See Littr£'s Hippocrates, vol. iv. p. 443.)

A further account of Oribasius, especially of his medical opinions, may be found in Freind's Hist. of Physic, vol. i.; Haller's Biblioth. Anat., Biblioth. Chirurg., Biblioth. Botan., and Biblioth. Medic. ' Pract.; Sprengel's Hist, de la Mid.; and in J. F. C. Hecker's Litterar. Annal. der gesammten Heil- kunde, 1825, vol. i., which last work the writer has never seen. See also Fabric. Biblioth. Gr. vol. ix. p. 451, xii. 640, xiii. 353, ed. vet.; and Choulant, Handb. der Bucherkunde fur die Aeltere Medicin. [W. A. G.J

ORIGENES ('npi7*V?js), one of the most emi­nent of the early Christian writers, not only for his intellectual powers and attainments, but also for the influence exercised by him on the opinions of subsequent ages, and for the dissensions and discussions respecting his opinions, which have been carried on through many centuries down to modern times.

I. life. Origen bore, apparently from his birth (Euseb. H. E. vi. 14) the additional name of Ada-mantius (>A8a(u,cu"r*0si), though Epiphanius states (Haeres. Ixiv. 73) that he assumed it himself. Doubtless, the name was regarded by the admirers of Origen as significant either of his unwearied industry (Hieron. Ep. xliii. ad Marcellam, c. 1. vol. i. p. 190 eel Vallars.), or of the irrefragable strength of his arguments (Phot. Bibl. cod. 118);

ORIGENES.

but these obviously laudatory interpretations of it render it improbable that Origen assumed it him­self, as a boastful temper does not appear to have been at all characteristic of him. The names " Chalcenterus " XaXKevrepos ("brasen-bowels ") given him by Jerome (I. c.), and " Chalceutes " Xa\K€ur-r]s ("brasier"), and "Syntactes" 2w-raKTris ("Composer") conferred upon him by others (Epiph. Haeres. Ixiii. 1 ; and Tillemont. Mem. vol. iii. p. 497), appear to have been mere epithets, expressive of his assiduity. As he was in his seventeenth year, at the time of his father's death, which occurred apparently in April 203 (Huet. Origenian, i. 8), in the persecution which began in the tenth year of the reign of the Emperor Severus, his birth must be fixed in or about a. d. 186. The year 187, given in the Chronicon Paschale, is too late ; and 185, given by most modern writers, too early. His father was Leonides (Aewi/iS^s), a devout Christian of Alexandria. Suidas (s. v. ^pijfvirjs) calls him "bishop;" but his authority, unsupported by any ancient testimony, is insufficient to prove his epis­copal character. Porphyry (apud Euseb. H. E. vi. 19) speaks of Origen, with whom he claimed to have been acquainted in early life, as having been educated a heathen, and afterwards converted to Christianity; but, as his acquaintance with Origen was apparently very slight, and when Origen was an old man, his authority in such a matter is of little weight. Leonides gave his son a careful education, not only in the usual branches of knowledge, but especially in the Scriptures, of which he made him commit to memory and recite a portion every day. Origen was a pupil of Clement of Alexandria, and he also received some instruction of Pantaenus apparently after his return from India. [pan­taenus.] He had Alexander, afterwards bishop of Jerusalem, for his early friend and fellow-student (Alex. ap. Euseb. H. E. vi. 14).

In the persecution which commenced in the ;enth year of Severus (a. d. 202) Leonides was imprisoned, and after a time beheaded. Origen was anxious to share with his father the glory of martyrdom ; and when this desire was frustrated the watchfulness of his mother, who, after vainly entreating him to give up his purpose, hid away all his clothes, and' so prevented him from eaving home, he wrote a letter to his father, jxhorting him to steadfastness, in the words " See ;hat thou changest not thy mind for our sakes." By the death of Leonides, his widow, with Origen and six younger sons, was reduced to destitution, the property of the martyr having been confiscated. Origen was, however, received into the house of a wealthy female, then living at Alexandria, who had, among her inmates at the time, one Paul of Antioch, whom she regarded as a son, who was in bad repute on account of his heretical opinions. Ne-ander calls him a Gnostic. His eloquence, however, attracted a considerable audience, not only of those who sympathised in his views, but of the orthodox;, yet Origen refused to unite in prayer with him, "detesting," as he has somewhere expressed it, 11 heretical teachings." (Euseb. //. E. vi. 2.) This repugnance probably quickened his efforts to be­come independent, and his ardent application to study enabled him soon to extricate himself from difficulty by becoming a teacher of the branches of education comprehended under the epithet " gram­matical " (rd jpafj-^ctrtKa). (Euseb. ibid.} Hia

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