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and also by David Peifer, whose translation was made in 1555, but first published in Schneider's second edition, Lips. 1813. There is a French translation by Florent Chrestien, Paris, 1575, 4to., and by Belin de Ballu, Strasb. 1787, 8vo. ; an English version of the first book by J. Mawer, Lond. 1736, 8vo. ; and a German one by S. H. Lieber-k'uhn, Leipz. 1755, 8vo. An anonymous Greek prose paraphrase of part of the poem was published by Andr. Mustoxydes and Dem. Schinas, in their

Venet. 1817, 8vo., which is probably the same as that which is commonly attributed to Eutecnius (see Lambec. Biblioih. Vindob. I. c.). The earliest edition of both poems is the Aldine, Venet. 1517, 8vo., containing the Greek text, .with the Latin translation of the "Halieutica," by Laur. Lippius. The most complete edition that has hitherto been published is that by J. G. Schneider, Argent. 1776, 8vo. Gr. et Lat., with copious and learned notes, containing also a Greek paraphrase of the " Ix-eutica " that will be mentioned below. The editor published some additional notes and observations in his "Analecta Critica," Francot 1777, 8vo. fasc. i. p. 31, &c. This edition was executed when Schneider was a young man, in conjunction with Brunck, who assisted him in >he " Cynegetica ;" and accordingly it exhibits many bold corrections of the text, which he withdrew in his second edition, published in 1813, Lips. 8vo. This edition is unfinished, and contains only the Greek text of the two poems, Peifer's Latin translation of the " Cynegetica," mentioned above, some short notes relating to the text, and a preface, in which Schneider repeats his conviction that the " Halieu­tica'' and " Cynegetica" were written by two dif­ferent persons, and replies to the objections of Belin de Ballu. The last edition of the two poems is that published by F. Didot, together with Ni-cander and Marcellus Sidetes, in his collection of Greek classical authors, Paris, large 8vo. 1846, edited by F. S. Lehrs. It contains a Latin prose translation and the Greek paraphrase of the " Ix-eutica," but (it is believed) is at present unfinished. A Latin translation of both poems was published in 1555, Paris, 4to., that of the " Halieutica" in verse by Laur. Lippius, and that of the " Cynegetica" in prose, by Adr. Turnebus ; and an Italian trans­lation of both poems by A. M. Salvini was published in 1728, Firenze, 8vo.

III. If we assume that there were two poets of the name of Oppian, there are two other ques­tions relating to them that require to be examined into : 1. To which are we to refer the biographical particulars contained in the anonymous Greek Life of Oppian ? and 2. Which, if either, was the author of the poem on hawking, 'I^eim/i-a.

1. The Greek Life states that Oppian was a native of Cilicia, and that his father's name was Agesilaus, and his mother's Zenodota. He received an excellent education in all the liberal sciences, especially music, geometry, and grammar, under the personal superintendence of his father, who was one of the principal persons in his native city, and who suffered himself to be so engrossed by his philosophical studies, that, when on one occasion the emperor Sever us visited his city, he neglected to pay his respects to him along with the other chief magistrates of the place. For this offence Agesilaus was banished to the island of Melita, and was accompanied in his exile by his son, who


was then about thirty years of age. Here Oppian wrote (or perhaps rather finished) his poems, which he took to Rome after the death of Severus, a. d. 211, and presented to his son " Antoninus" (i. e. Caracalla}) or, according to Sozomen (Hist. Eccles. praef.), to Severus himself. The emperor is said to have been so much pleased with the poems, that he not only repealed, at his request, the sentence of his father's banishment, but also presented him with a piece of gold (<rrari)p xpu<raws, or vouio'/jlo. xpu-ffovv, probably about fifteen shillings and sixpence) for each verse they contained. Shortly after his return to his native country he died of some pes­tilential disease, at the early age of thirty. His countrymen raised a monument in his honour, and inscribed on it five verses (which are preserved), which lament his early death, and allude to his poems, but not in such definite terms as to enable us to decide which are the poems intended. The anonymous biographer does not mention the " Halieutica," but only the " Cynegetica" and " Ixeutica."

It is quite clear (if the hypothesis adopted in this article be correct) that the whole of these par­ticulars cannot apply to either of the poets of the name of Oppian, nor, perhaps, is it possible to decide for certain how they are to be apportioned to each. Probably the epitaph and the early death belong to the Cilician, that is, to the author of the " Halieutica"; and the anecdote respecting the " golden verses" may relate to the other poet.

2. With respect to the poem on hawking, 'I£eis'- :tfa, if it is to be attributed to either of the Oppians, it probably belongs to the younger ; but Schneider considers that it is more probably the work of Dionysius. The poem itself, which is said to have consisted of five books, is no longer extant, but there is a Greek prose paraphrase of three books by Eutecnius. This was first published with a Latin translation by Eras. Windingius, l^afniae, 1702, 8vo., and is inserted in Schneider's former edition, and in Didot's. The first book treats of tame birds and birds of prey ; the second of water­ fowls ; and the third of the various modes of catching birds. Of the poetical merits of the work, as it no longer exists in the form of a poem, it is scarcely possible to judge. (See Fabric. Bibl. Gr. vol. v. p. 590, &c. ed. Harles ; J. G. Schneider's preface and notes to his first edition, and the pre­ face to the second ; Hoffmann's Lex. Biblioyraph. art. " Oppianus," by F. Ritter, in Ersch and Gruber's Encydopadie.} [W. A. G.]

OPPIDIUS, SE'RVIUS, a wealthy Roman of Canusium, whose dying advice to his two sons, Aulus and Tiberius, is related by Horace. (Sat. ii. ]. .168, &c.)

OPPIUS. 1. M. oppius, was elected, with Sext. Manilius, as the commander of the soldiers, in their secession to the Aventine during the second decemvirate, b. c. 449 (Liv. iii. 51 ; Dionys. xi. 43,44).

2. C. oppius, was elected one of the tribunes of the plebs on the overthrow of the second decem­virate, b. c. 449 (Liv. iii. 54).

3. C. oppius, tribune of the plebs, b.c. 213, in the middle of the second Punic war, carried a law to curtail the expenses and luxuries of Roman women. It enacted that no woman should have more than half an ounce of gold, nor wear a dress of different colours, nor ride in a carriage in the city, or in any town, or within a mile of it, unless 011

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