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Achaean was among the victors. At length the Achaeans consulted the Delphic oracle, and, in obedience to its response, they erected a statue of Oebotas in the Altis at Olympia, 01. 80. b. c. 460 ; soon after which a victory was gained in the boys' foot-race, by Sostratus of Pellene. Hence the custom was established for the Achaean athletes to sacrifice to Oebotas before engaging in an Olympic contest, and, when victorious, to crown his statue. (Paus. vii. 17. §§ 6, 7, 13, 14, Bekker ; comp. vi. 3. §8). [P. S.J
OECUMENIUS (OiWueW), a Greek commentator on various parts of the New Testament. Of this writer scarcely any thing is known : even the time in which he lived is not ascertained. He is cited very often in a MS. Catena in Epistolas Pauli, formerly in the Coislinian library at Paris, which Montfaucon (Biblioth. Coislin. cod. xxvii. p. 82) ascribes to the tenth century; and, as in his own Commentaries Oecumenius has cited Photius, who belongs to the latter half of the ninth century, T ardner is perhaps correct (Credib. bk. i. c. clxii.) in assigning him to the year 950. Cave's date (a. d. 990) is somewhat too late, if we can rely on Montfaucon's judgment of the age of the Coislinian MS. Dupin places him in the eleventh century, later than Theophylact, which appears to be altogether too late. In a MS. cited by Montfaucon (ib. cod. ccxxiv. p. 277) he is styled bishop of Tricca in Thessaly. The following commentaries are, or have been, ascribed to Oecumenius: — 1. Commentaria in Sacrosancta quatuor Christi Evangelia,... Autore quidem (ut plurimi sentiunt) Oecumenio interprete vero Joanne Hentenio, fol. Lovan. 1543. This is a Latin version of the Commentary now generally ascribed to Euthymius Zigabenus [euthymius zigabenus]. Hente-nius himself seems to have been convinced of the authorship of Euthymius very soon after the publication of the work, and after a few months added to the copies not issued a new title-page, with the date 1544 and an Admonitio Studioso Lectori, vindicating the claim of Euthymius. This version has been repeatedly reprinted. It may be as well here to correct the statement given elsewhere [euthymius], that this commentary has been published only in Latin. The Greek text was published by C. F. Matthaei, in 3 vols. 8vo., Leipzig, 1792. Comparatively few copies of the edition of Hen-tenius, in the original form, appear to have got abrrad, and few writers appear to have been aware of its real date (1543), and of its having borne the name of Oecumenius on the title-page. The editor of the Oxford edition of Cave's Historic/, Litteraria (1740—43), in a note, and Lardner in his Credibility, notice that Le Long had, in his Bibliotheca Sacra, ascribed a Commentary on the Gospels to Oecumenius ; but they evidently knew not which was the work referred to. Fabricius merely observes that some had conjecturally ascribed the Commentary of Euthymius to Oecumenius. Hamberger, with more sagacity, inferred from the Admonitio of Hentenius, which indeed speaks plainly enough, that the work had been issued in 1543, and probably under the name of Oecumenius ; but Matthaei gravely disputes the correctness of his deduction. (See Harles, not. i. ad Fabric, vol. viii. p. 344.) A copy of the work in its original form, and with the date 1543, is in the library of the British Museum. It is to be observed that the ascription of this commentary, either to Oecumenius or Euthymius, rests only on
internal evidence. In one MS. it bears the name of Nicetas of Serrae, or, as he is usually termed, Nicetas of Heracleia ; in another of Theophylact. The authorship of Euthymius is inferred from the resemblance of the work to his Commentary on the Psalms. The editor of Cave states that Oecumenius himself refers in a passage in his commentary on St. Paul's Epistles, Ad Hebraeos, c. 6, to a commentary which he had written on the Gospels, but we have not been able to find the place. 2. 'EtyyijffzLS els tccs irpdfeis twv 'attootoa&jj', Enarrationes (s. Commentarii) in Acta Apostolorum, compiled from the earlier Greek fathers, especially Chrysostom, with many additions by the compiler. 3. 'Etyyrio-eis ets rds natfAou eTTiaroAas Trdcras, Commentarii in Epistolas Pauli omnes, of similar character to the Commentary on the Acts of the Apostles. 4. 'E^y^areis etv t.cis €7rra KaQoXiKas \eyofjievas €Tri(Tro\ds, Commentarii in septem Epistolas quae Catholicae dicuntui\ 5. Ets rrjv 'Icadvvov aTro/caAmJ/ij/, In Joannis Apo-calysim. These various commentaries have been published. Those on the Acts and the Epistles, both the Pauline and the Catholic, were published by Donatus, together with the Commentary of Arethas of Caesareia on the Apocalypse, fol. Verona, 1532. They were again published at Paris, 2 vols. fol. 1631. A Latin version of these Commentaries on the Acts and Epistles, and of Arethas on the Apocalypse, by Hentenius, was published at Antwerp, fol. 1545. This version was reprinted, 4to. Frankfort, 1610 ; and with the Greek text of Oecumenius and Arethas in the Parisian edition of 1631. Another Latin version, by Felicianus, of the Commentaries on the Acts and the Catholic Epistles, was published, 8vo. Basel, 1552, and Venice, 1556 ; and one byMaximus Florentinus of the Commentary on the Epistles of Paul, 2 vols. 8vo. Basel, 1553. The Commentary on the Apocalypse has been lately published with a Catena in Catholicas Epistolas, and another Commentary on the Apocalypse, compiled from those of Andreas and Arethas of Caesareia, and of Oecumenius, by J. A. Cramer, 8vo. Oxford, 1840. The proem of this commentary of Oecumenius on the Apocalypse had been previously published by Montfaucon (Biblioth. Coislin. p. 277)-with a Latin version. The title of Oecumenius to the authorship of the Commentaries on the Acts and the Epistles is doubted by Possevino on the authority of Fronto Ducaeus, who regarded Oecumenius simply as one of the writers from whom the work had been compiled ; but Hentenius has shown good reason for believing him to be the author. Sixtus Senensis speaks of a Commentary of Oecumenius on the Pentateuch ; but nothing is. known of such a work: Sixtus refers to some notice of it by Oecumenius himself in his Commentary on the Hebrews. Oecumenius has the reputation of a judicious commentator, careful in compilation, modest in offering his own judgment, and neat in expression. (Hentenius, Praef. ad Oecumen.. Com-mentar.; Matthaei, Proleg. ad Euthymii Commcn-tar. in Quatuor Evang.; Simon, Hist. Critique des principauos Commentateurs du N. T., c. xxxii. ; Sixt. Senens. Biblioth. Sacra, lib. iv. ; Possevino, Apparat. Sacer; Cave, Hist. Litt. ad ann. 990, vol. ii. p. 112, ed. Oxford, 1740—43 ; Fabric. Biblioth. Grace, vol. viii. p. 343, &c., p. 692, &c. ; Dupin, Nouvclle Bibliotl. des Aut. Ecclcs. (11 erne siecle), p. 395, ed. 8vo. Paris, 1698; Ceiliiev, A2iteursSacres,yo\.x.ix, p. 742 ; Oudin, Comment, de