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OCTAVIA.

yvvcuKos. (Pint. Ant. 31.) Nor at first did this union disappoint public expectation. By the side of Octavia, Antony for a time forgot Cleo­patra, and the misunderstandings and jealousies which had again arisen between her brother and husband, and which threatened an open rupture in the year 36, were removed by her influence and intervention. But Antony had by this time become tired of his wife ; a virtuous woman soon palled the sated appetite of such a profligate debauchee, and he now longed to enjoy again the wanton charms of his former mistress, Cleopatra. The war with the Parthians summoned him to the East, to which he went with all the greater pleasure, as in the East he would again meet with the Egyptian queen. Octavia accompanied him from Italy as far as Corcyra, but upon arriving at that island he sent her back to her brother, under the pretext of not exposing her to the perils and hardships of the war (Dion Cass. xlviii. 54) ; though, according to other authorities, he parted with her in Italy. (Plut. Ant. 35 ; Appian. B. C. v. 95.) On arriving in Asia, Antony soon forgot, in the arms of Cleopatra, both his wife and the Parthians, and thus sullied both his own honour and that of the Roman arms. Octavia, however, resolved to make an effort to regain the lost affec­tions of her husband. In the following year, b. c. 35, she set out from Italy with reinforcements of men and money to assist Antony in his war against Artavasdes, king of Armenia ; but Antony re­solved not to meet the woman whom he had so deeply injured, and accordingly sent her a message, when she had arrived as far as Athens, requesting her to return home. Octavia obeyed ; she was great-minded enough to send him the money and troops, and he mean enough to accept them. It is stated that Octavianus had supplied her with the troops because he foresaw the way in which Antony would act, and was anxious to obtain additional grounds to justify him in the impending war. On her return to Rome, Octavianus ordered her to leave her husband's house and come and reside with him, but she refused to do so, and would not appear as one of the causes of the war ; she remained in her husband's abode, where she educated Antony's younger son, by Fulvia, with her own children. (Pint. Ant. 53, 54.) But this noble conduct had no effect upon the hardened heart of Antony, who had become the complete slave of Cleopatra ; and when the war broke out in B. c. 32, he sent his faithful wife a bill of divorce. After the death of Antony she still remained true to the interests of his children, not­withstanding the wrongs she had received from their father. For Julus, the younger son of Antony, by Fulvia, she obtained the special favour of Augustus, and she even brought up with ma­ternal care his children by Cleopatra. She died in b. c. 11, and was buried in the Julian heroum, where Augustus delivered the funeral oration in her honour, but separated from the corpse by a hanging. Her funeral was a public one ; her sons-in-law carried her to the grave ; but many of the honours decreed by the senate were declined by the emperor. (Dion Cass. liv. 35 ; Senec. ad Pohjb. 34.)

Octavia had five children, three by Marcellus, a son and two daughters, and two by Antony, both daughters. Her son, M. Marcellus, was adopted by Octavianus, and was destined to be his successor,

OCTAVIA.

but died in b. c. 23. [marcellus, No. 15.] Of her two daughters by her former husband, one was married to M. Agrippa, and subsequently to Julus Antonius [marcella], but of the fate of the other daughter we have no information. The descend­ants of her two daughters by Antonius succes­sively ruled the Roman world. The elder of them married L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, and became the grandmother of the emperor Nero ; the younger of them married Drusus, the brother of the emperor Tiberius, and became the mother of the emperor Claudius, and the grandmother of the emperor Caligula. [antonia, Nos. 5 and 6.] A complete view of the descendants of Octavia is given in the stemma on p. 7.

(The authorities for the life of Octavia are collected by Drumann, GescMchte Roms, vol. v. pp. 235—244. The most important passages are :— Appian, B. C. v. 64, 67, 93, 95, 138 ; Dion Cass. xlvii. 7, xlviii. 31, 54, xlix. 33,1. 3, 26, li. 15, liv. 35 ; Plut. Ant. 31, 33, 35, 57, 59, 87 ; Suet. Caes. 27, Aug. 4, 61.)

COIN OF OCTAVIA, THE SISTER OF AUGUSTUS.

One of the most important public buildings erected in Rome in the reign of Augustus was called after Octavia, and bore the name of Porticus Octaviae. It must be carefully distinguished from the Porticus Octavia, which was built by Cn. Octavius, who commanded the fleet in the war against Perseus, king of Macedonia. [OcTAVius, No. 3.] The former was built by Augustus, in the name of his sister, whence some writers speak of it as the work of the emperor, and others as the work of Octavia. It lay between the Circus Flaminius and the theatre of Marcellus, occupying the same site as the porticus which was built by Q. Caecilius Me-tellus, after his triumph over Macedonia, in b. c. 146 [metellus, No. 5], and enclosing, as the porticus of Metellus had done, the two temples of Jupiter Stator and of Juno. The Porticus Octaviae contained a public library, which frequently served as a place of meeting for the senate, and is hence called Curia Octavia. The whole suite of buildings is sometimes termed Octaviae Opera. It contained a vast number of statues, paintings, and other valuable works of art, but they were all destroyed, together with the library, by the fire which con sumed the building in the reign of Titus (Dion Cass. Ixvi. 24). There is some doubt as to the time at which Augustus built the Porticus Octaviae. It is usually stated, on the authority of Dion Cassius (xlix. 43), that the building was erected by Octavianus, after the victory over the Dalmatians, in b. c. 33 ; but this appears to be a mistake ; for Vitruvius, who certainly did not write his work so early as this year, still speaks (iii. 2. § 5, ed. Schneider) of the Porticus Metelli, and we learn from Plutarch (Marc. 30) that the dedication at all events of the Porticus did not take place till after the death of M. Marcellus in b. c. 23. (Veil. Pat. i. 11 ; Dion Cass. xlix. 43 ; Plut. I. c.; Liv. Epit. 138; Suet, Aug. 29; Plin. //. N. xxxvi. 4. s. 5 ; Festus, p. 178, ed. Muller j Becker, Hand-

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