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NUMA.

note. Persons of this name are first mentioned in the last century of the republic, but none of the Novii obtained the consulship till a. d. 78.

NOVIUS. 1. Q. Novius, a celebrated writer of Atellane plays, was a contemporary of Pompo-nius, who wrote plays of the same kind, and of the dictator Sulla. (Macrob. Sat. i. 10 ; Gell. xv. 13.) The plays of Novius are frequently mentioned by Nonius Marcellus, and occasionally by the other grammarians. A list of the plays, and the frag­ments which are preserved, are given, by Bothe. {Poet. Lot. Scenic. Fragmenta, vol. ii. p. 41, &c.)

2. L. Novius, a colleague and enemy of P. Clodius in his tribunate, b.c. 58. A fragment of a speech of his is preserved by Asconius (in Cic» Mil. p. 47, Orelli).

NOX. [nyx.]

NUCIUS, NICANDER (NiWfyos Notfowy), a native of Corcyra, born about the beginning of the sixteenth century, who was driven from his own country by various misfortunes, and took refuge at Venice. Here he was taken into the service of Gerard Veltuyckus, or Veltwick (with whom he had been previously acquainted), who was going as ambassador from the emperor Charles V. to the court of the .Sultan Solyman, a. d. 1545. He accompanied him not only to Constantinople, but also over several other parts of Europe, and wrote an account of his travels, which is still extant, and contains much curious and interesting matter. There is a MS. of this work in the Bod­ leian library at Oxford (containing two books, but not quite perfect at the end), from which the second book has been edited in Greek with an English translation under the direction of Dr. Cramer, small 4to., 1841, London, printed for the Camden Society. In his introduction, Dr. Cramer has given a short analysis of the contents of the first book. There is another and more complete MS. of Nucius's Travels preserved in the Ambro- sian library at Milan, consisting of three books, from which there was, some years ago, an intention on the part of one of the officers of the library of editing the work, but the writer is not aware that this intention has ever been put into execution. (Compare Dr. Cramer's Introduction to his edi­ tion.) [W. A. G.]

NUMA MARCIUS. 1. The son of Marcus, is described in the legend of Numa Pompilius as the most intimate friend of that king, Marcius urged Numa to accept the Roman throne, accom­panied him from his Sabine country to Rome, there became a member of the senate, and was chosen by his royal friend to be the first Pontifex Maximiis, and the depository of all his religious and ecclesiastical enactments. It is related that Marcius aspired to the kingly dignity on the death of Pompilius, and that he starved himself to death on the election of Tulliis Hostilius. (Plut. Num. 5,6,21 ; Liv. i. 20.)

2. The son of the preceding, is said to have mar­ried Pompilia, the daughter of Numa Pompilius, and to have become by her the father of Ancus Marcius. Numa Marcius was appointed by Tullus Hostilius praefectus urbi. (Plut. Num. 21, Coriol. ; ; Tac. Ann. vi. 11.)

NUMA POMPFLIUS, the second king of Rome. The legend of this king is so well told by Niebuhr (Hist, of Rome, vol. i. p. 237, &c.), from Livy and the ancient authorities, that we cannot do better than borrow his words. " On the death of

.NUMA.

Romulus the senate at first would not allow the election of a new king: every senator was to enjoy the royal power in rotation as interrex. In this way a year passed. The people, being treated more oppressively than before, were vehement in demanding the election of a sovereign to protect them. When the senate permitted it to be held, the Romans and Sabines disputed out of which nation the king should be taken. It was agreed that the former should choose him out of the latter: and all voices concurred in naming the wise and pious Numa Pompilius of Cures, who had married the daughter of Tatius.

" It was a very prevalent belief in antiquity that Numa had derived his knowledge from the Greek Pythagoras ; Polybius and other writers attempted to show that this was impossible, for chronological reasons, inasmuch as Pythagoras did not come into Italy till the reign of Servius Tullius ; but an impartial critic, who does not believe that the son of Mnesarehus was the only Pythagoras, or that there is any kind of necessity for placing Numa in the twentieth Olympiad, or, in fine, that the historical personality of Pythagoras is more certain than that of Numa, will be pleased with the old popular opinion, and will not sacrifice it to chronology.

" When Numa was assured by the auguries that the gods approved of his election, the first care of the pious king was turned, not to the rites of the temples, but to human institutions. He divided the lands which Romulus had conquered and had left open to occupancy. He founded the worship of Terminus. It was not till after he had done this that Numa set himself to legislate for religion. He was revered as the author of the Roman cere­monial law. Instructed by the Camena Egeria, who was espoused to him in a visible form, and who led him into the assemblies of her sisters in the sacred grove, he regulated the whole hierarchy ; the pon­tiffs, who took care, by precept and by chastise-mentj that the laws relating to religion should be observed both by individuals and by the state ; the augurs, whose calling it was to afford security for the councils of men by piercing into those of the gods; the flamens, who ministered in the temples of the supreme deities ; the chaste virgins of Vesta ; the Salii, who solemnised the worship of the gods with armed dances and songs. He pre­scribed the rites according to which the people might offer worship and prayer acceptable to the gods. To him were revealed the conjurations for compelling Jupiter himself to make known his will, by lightnings and the flight of birds: whereas others were forced to wait for these prodigies from the favour of the god, who was often silent to such as were doomed to destruction. This charm he learnt from Faunus and Picus, whom, by the advice of Egeria, he enticed and bound in chains, as Midas bound Silenus in the rose garden. From this pious prince the god brooked such boldness. At Numa's entreaty he exempted the people from the terrible duty of offering up human sacrifices. But when the audacious Tullus presumed to imi­tate his predecessor, he was killed by a flash of lightning during his conjurations in the temple of Jupiter Elicius. The thirty-nine years of Numa's reign, which glided away in quiet happiness, with­out any war or any calamity, afforded no legends but of such marvels. That nothing might break the peace of his days, the ancile fell from heaven,

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