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'the last we have two lines preserved by Stobaeus, 38.10. (Meineke, vol. v. p. 583; Stob. vol.ii. p.59, ed. Gaisford.) Athenaeus gives (ii. p. 58, a.) three lines, and (xi. p. 781, f.) one line (Meineke, vol. v. p. 587, &c.), from plays of Nicomachus, whose titles he does not mention.
There are several other literary persons of this name. By one of them there is an epigram on an earthquake which desolated Plataea. The point of it lies in the ruins of Plataea, constituting the monument of those that perished. Of the date of the earthquake, or the writer of the epigram, we know nothing. (Anth. Graec. vol. ii. p. 258, ed. Jacobs.) Nor do we know who the Nicomachus is who wrote Trepl eopruv Alyvrrriiay, quoted by Athenaeus (xi. p. 478, a.), though this work is sometimes attributed to Nicomachus Gerasenus. [W. M.G.]
NICOMACHUS (NiKoVaxos repao^j/os, or Fepaa'tj'Js), called Gerasenus, from his native place, Gerasa in Arabia, was a Pythagorean, and the writer .of a life of Pythagoras, now lost. His date is inferred from his mention of Thrasyllus, who lived under Tiberius. He wrote on arithmetic and music, and is the earliest, we believe, of those whose names became bye-words to express skill in computation. In the Philopatris is the phrase " you number like Nicomachus of Gerasa." This writer exercised no small influence on European studies, in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries ; but indirectly. Bo e thins, in his arithmetical work, is no more than the abbreviator of the larger work of Nicomachus, now lost. The never-ending distinction of specific ratios by names (see Numbers, old appellations of, in the Supplement to the Penny Cyclopaedia), is the remote consequence of Nicomachus having been a Pythagorean.
The extant works of Nicomachus are: — ]. 'ApifyojTtKTjs elffaywyfjs fii€\ia j8, the lesser work on arithmetic. It was printed (Gr.) by Christian Wech el, Paris, 1538,4to ; also, after the theologumena Arithmeticae, attributed to lamblichus, Leipzig, 1817, 8vo. A Latin version by one Appuleius is lost, as also various commentaries, of which only fragments remain. 2. JE7%6(ptSiov dpfj-oviK^s @i€\ia j8, a work on music, first printed (Gr.) by Joh. Meursius, in his collection, Leyden, 1616, 4to, and afterward in the collection of Meibomius, (Gr. Lat.), Amsterdam, 1652, 4to ; and again in the works of Meursius by Lami, Florence, 1745, fol. The works which are lost are a collection of Pythagorean dogmata, referred to by lamblichus ; a larger work on music, promised by Nicomachus himself, and apparently referred to by Eutocius in his comment on the sphere and cylinder of Archimedes ; freohoyov/Jieva tfynfytrjTiKTjy, mentioned by Photius, but a different work from that above alluded to ; rex"1? dpiB/j^riK^, the larger work above noted, distinctively mentioned by Photius ; a work on geometry, to which Nicomachus himself once refers ; Trepl eopraJz/ Aiyvjrriwv, mentioned by Athenaeus, but whether by this Nicomachus or another, uncertain. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. v. p 629 ; Hoffman ; Schweiger.) [A. De M.]
NICOMACHUS (NiKoVaxos), artists. 1. A painter, of the highest distinction, was (according to the common text of Pliny) a Theban, the son and discip/e of the painter Aristodemus, the elder brother and teacher of the great painter Aristeides, and the father and teacher of Aristocles. (Plin. //.AT. xxxv. 10. s. 36. § 22.)
We have thus the following stemma:—
But the names vary in the MSS., and in the Bamberg MS. they are altogether different, giving the following stemma:—
To decide with certainty between the readings is impossible: it may, however, be remarked that there is no other passage in which the names of Aristodemus and Aristocles occur. (Comp. the KunstWatt, for 1832, p. 188.)
He is frequently mentioned by the ancient writers in terms of the highest praise. Cicero says that in his works, as well as in those of Echion, Protogenes, and Apelles, every thing was already perfect. (Brutus, J8.) Plutarch mentions his paintings, with the poems of Homer, as possessing, in addition to their force and grace, the appearance of having been executed with little toil or effort. (Timol. 36.) Vitruvius mentions him as among the artists who were prevented from attaining to the very highest fame, not from any want of skill or industry, but from accidental circumstances (iii. Prooem. § 2).
Pliny tells us that Nicomachus was one of the artists who used only four colours '(H. N. xxxv. 7. s. 32 ; com p. Diet, of Antiq. s.v. Colores), and that, like Parrhasius, he used the Eretrian ochre in his shadows (ibid. 6. s. 21). He was one of the most rapid of painters. As an example, Pliny relates that, having been commissioned by Aristratus to paint the monument which he was erecting to the poet Telestes, Nicomachus postponed the commencement of the work so long as to incur the anger of the tyrant, but, at last, beginning it only a few days before the time fixed for its completion, he fulfilled his engagement with no less skill than rapidity. (Plin. H. N. xxxv. 10. s. 36. § 22.)
As his works, Pliny mentions, the Rape of Proserpine, which once hung above the shrine of Youth (Juventas) in the temple of Minerva, on the Capitol: a Victory with a four-horsed chariot (quadrigam in sublime rapiens), also in the Capitol, where it had been placed by Plancus: Apollo and Diana: Cybele riding on a lion: a celebrated picture of female bacchanals, surprised by satyrs stealing upon them: and a Seylla, at Rome, in the temple of Peace (Plin. I. c.). He was the first who painted Ulysses with the pileus (ibid.). Pliny also mentions his unfinished picture of the Tyndaridae, among the examples of unfinished works by great masters, which were more highly admired than even their perfect paintings. (H. N. xxxv. 11. s. 40. § 41.) His disciples were his brother Aristeides, his son Aristocles, and Philoxenes of Eretria (Plin. 1. c. 36. § 22 ; but compare the commence-